Two methods are employed, the hydrochlorination of acetylene and the dehydrochlorination of ethylene dichloride (1,2-dichloroethane). Vinyl chloride is a mutagen having clastogenic effects which affect lymphocyte chromosomal structure. Associate Professor of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville. Vinyl chloride is also known as chloroethene, chloroethylene, and ethylene monochloride. Vinyl chloride and PVC are used as raw materials in the plastics, rubber, paper, glass, and automotive industries. It has higher tensile strength and modulus than flexible PVC, but has low impact toughness, and is subject to stress cracking depending on the environment. It is flammable, emitting hydrogen chloride. This industrial route to vinyl chloride was common before ethylene became widely distributed.  VCM can polymerise rapidly due to heating and under the influence of air, light and contact with a catalyst, strong oxidisers and metals such as copper and aluminium, with fire or explosion hazard. But there's more to PVC than just pipe. Several inches of empty space separate the inside sphere from the outside sphere. Main Uses. PVC comes in two basic forms: rigid (sometimes abbreviated as RPVC) and flexible. The presently accepted upper limit of safety as a health hazard is 500 ppm. Vinyl chloride was first produced in 1835 by Justus von Liebig and his student Henri Victor Regnault. TOXBASE®. The reaction must, therefore, be kinetically controlled in order to obtain a maximal vinyl chloride yield.  Vinyl chloride is a gas at normal atmospheric temperature and pressure. This void area between the spheres is purged with an inert gas such as nitrogen. The normal method of producing acetylene was from calcium carbide.  In 1954, B.F. Goodrich Chemical stated that vinyl chloride caused liver injury upon short-term exposures.  In 1972, Maltoni, another Italian researcher for the European vinyl chloride industry, found liver tumors (including angiosarcoma) from vinyl chloride exposures as low as 250 ppm for four hours a day. China is also a large manufacturer and one of the largest consumers of VCM. This colorless compound is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce the polymer polyvinyl chloride (PVC). VCM is among the top twenty largest petrochemicals (petroleum-derived chemicals) in world production. Vinyl chloride finds its major application in the production of PVC.  Vinyl chloride is a gas with a sweet odor. When treated with certain catalysts, vinyl chloride monomers undergo polymerization and form the larger compound known as polyvinyl chloride, or PVC. …suspension, and emulsion polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer, using free-radical initiators. Vinyl chloride is a chemical intermediate, not a final product. It is primarily used to manufacture polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a very stable, non-flammable, lightweight and durable plastic. cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters), outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g.  Es ist die Grundsubstanz zur Herstellung von Polyvinylchlorid (PVC). Nat Catal (2020). What happens to vinyl chloride when it enters the environment? Vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the formula H2C=CHCl that is also called vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) or chloroethene. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. MDL number MFCD00040415. Atlanta, US. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) (1997). The explosive limits are: lower 4.0%, upper 22.05 by volume in air.  Production. The symptoms of vinyl chloride exposure are classified by ppm levels in ambient air with 4,000 ppm having a threshold effect. Ethane sulfochlorination has been proposed as a route to produce vinyl chloride using sulfur instead of oxygen.. VC use did not occur when nitrate was provided as the electron acceptor. An aerobic enrichment culture was developed by using vinyl chloride (VC) as the sole organic carbon and electron donor source. Vinyl chloride can have acute dermal and ocular effects. Processes based on acetylene were developed in the 1930s and are more direct, but because acetylene is much more expensive than ethylene, these processes are used far less than ethylene-based ones. The final product of the polymerization process is PVC in either a flake or pellet form.  Its flammable limits in air are: lower 3.6 volume% and upper 33.0 volume%. Vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the formula H2C=CHCl that is also called vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) or chloroethene. Lyon.  The complete loss of skin elasticity expresses itself in Raynaud’s Phenomenon.. This production method is cheaper than preparing EDC from acetylene, which is why it has become the major route to vinyl chloride since the late 1950s. A gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile isolate was obtained from the enrichment culture and identified … UK Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and Environment Agency (EA) (2004). VCM is among the top twenty largest petrochemicals (petroleum-derived chemicals) in world production. Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is used almost exclusively in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) manufacture. , According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), "vinyl chloride emissions from polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ethylene dichloride (EDC), and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) plants cause or contribute to air pollution that may reasonably be anticipated to result in an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness. May 22–29, 1970. Viola, P L. "Carcinogenic Effect of Vinyl Chloride" Presented at the Tenth International Cancer Congress. Poly(vinyl chloride) is the plastic known at the hardware store as PVC. "The Correlation of Clinical and Environmental Measurements for Workers Exposed to Vinyl Chloride." Typically, a vinyl chloride plant is designed to integrate the two processes so that the hydrogen chloride produced by heating 1,2-dichloroethane is used as a reactant in the oxychlorination method.  In a 1969 presentation given in Japan, P. L. Viola, a European researcher working for the European vinyl chloride industry, indicated, "every monomer used in V.C. If vinyl chloride starts to leak from the internal sphere or if a fire is detected on the outside of the sphere then the contents of the sphere are automatically dumped into an emergency underground storage container. Dermal exposure effects are thickening of skin, edema, decreased elasticity, local frostbites, blistering, and irritation. Due to the hazardous nature of vinyl chloride to human health there are no end products that use vinyl chloride in its monomer form. Heating 1,2-dichloroethane in the presence of a charcoal catalyst gives vinyl chloride. "Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication Group, Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis Section, Health and Safety Research Division. Acetylene reacts with anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas over a mercuric chloride catalyst to give vinyl chloride: The reaction is exothermic and highly selective. WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. Vinyl chloride has also been used in the past as a refrigerant. The mutagenicity of this liver carcinogen is dependent on metabolic activation by CYP450, and detoxification is mediated by mEH.18 As shown in Figure 7-6, vinyl chloride is a relatively simple compound. Cluj, Romania. Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS) (1993). PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials.  The intensity of symptoms varies from acute (1,000-8,000 ppm), including dizziness, nausea, visual disturbances, headache, and ataxia, to chronic (above 12,000 ppm), including narcotic effect, cardiac arrhythmias, and fatal respiratory failure. Vinyl chloride liquid is fed to polymerization reactors where it is converted from a monomeric VCM to a polymeric PVC. As the nitrogen purge gas exits the void space it passes through an analyzer that is designed to detect if any vinyl chloride is leaking from the internal sphere.  In 1968, Mutchler and Kramer, two Dow researchers, reported their finding that exposures as low as 300 ppm caused liver damage in vinyl chloride workers thus confirming earlier animal data in humans. August 22, 1930, Tribukh, S L et al. Omissions?  In 1949, a Russian publication discussed the finding that vinyl chloride caused liver injury among workers. VCM will react with iron and steel in the presence of moisture. , Vinyl chloride can also be obtained as a byproduct in the synthesis of chlorofluorocarbons when saturated chlorofluorocarbons are catalytically dechlorinated by ethylene. Vinyl chloride ≥99.5% Synonym: Chloroethylene CAS Number 75-01-4. Houston, Texas. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is very stable, storable, and nowhere near as acutely toxic as the vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). HPA Report Version 1. The plumbing in your house is probably PVC pipe, unless it's an older house. It remains the main production method in China. [1,4] PVC is an important plastic used in a variety of products, including automotive parts, pipes, medical supplies, packaging products, furniture, and construction materials. Vinylchlorid (Chlorethen, auch Monochlorethen oder eigentlich veraltet Monochlorethylen), abgekürzt VC, ist ein farbloses, brennbares, narkotisierendes Gas mit in hoher Konzentration leicht süßlichem, chlorartigem Geruch. The product is a geminal dihalide (both halogens are bonded to the same carbon).…. Long storage in contact with air increases the concentration of the polyperoxides to hazardous levels [MCA Case History 1551. Bologna, April 9–12, 1973. This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 07:13. Vinyl chloride is the starting material for the production of polyvinyl chloride, used in the fabrication of products such as PVC pipe. ", The Houston Chronicle claimed in 1998 that the vinyl industry manipulated vinyl chloride studies to avoid liability for worker exposure and hid extensive and severe chemical spills in local communities. Patty, F.A. The remainder is consumed in polyvinylidene chloride and chlorinated solvents. Vinyl chloride is primarily used for the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The conversion of ethane to vinyl chloride can be performed by various routes:. Vinyl chloride that is released by industries or formed by the breakdown of other chlorinated chemicals can enter the air and drinking water supplies. manufacture is hazardous....various changes were found in bone and liver. The resulting vapor-liquid mixture then goes to a purification system. Ethylene, ethyl chloride, and 1,2-dichloroethane are obtained as major byproducts. Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen that causes a rare cancer of the liver. Public Health Reports. Vinyl chloride.". ", In 1997 the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) concluded that the development and acceptance by the PVC industry of a closed loop polymerization process in the late 1970s "almost completely eliminated worker exposures" and that "new cases of hepatic angiosarcoma in vinyl chloride polymerization workers have been virtually eliminated. The spheres have an inside sphere and an outside sphere. Vinyl chloride was first produced using the process of dehydrating ethylene dichloride (EDC) with alcoholic caustic potash. On standing VCM can form peroxides, which may then explode. Forms explosive polymeric peroxides in contact with air (in the presence of any of a variety of catalysts) [Bretherick 1979. p. 164]. The chemical industry's secrets,", National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Vinyl Chloride Subpart F, OMB Control Number 2060-0071, EPA ICR Number 0186.09 (, EPA Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride in Support of Information on the IRIS. Suciu, I et al. The findings in rats at the concentration of 4 to 10 ppm are shown in pictures." ", The bacteria species Nitrosomonas europaea can degrade a variety of halogenated compounds including trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. Typically, a vinyl chloride plant is designed to integrate the two processes so that the hydrogen chloride produced by heating 1,2-dichloroethane is used as a reactant in the oxychlorination method. This is the PVC from which pipes are made, and PVC pipe is everywhere. "Clinical Manifestations in Vinyl Chloride Poisoning" Clinic of Professional Diseases. Vinyl chloride is an organohalogen compound that has important industrial applications. Continuous exposure can cause CNS depression including euphoria and disorientation. "Vinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride, and vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymers." In practice, the yield for EDC conversion is relatively low (50 to 60 percent). , Vinyl chloride was first produced in 1835 by Justus von Liebig and his student Henri Victor Regnault. VINYL CHLORIDE is peroxidizable. Many such ethane-based processes have been and are being developed. Kramer, G.C., M.D. PVDC has … Vinyl chloride also burns easily and is not stable at high temperatures. PVC is used in the manufacture of numerous products, including packaging films and water pipes. "Vinyl chloride." Vinyl chloride is used to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC). It is one of the most durable low-cost films and is resistant to many chemicals. '"Vinyl chloride. Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. Vinyl Chloride Monomer Summary Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) is a colorless, flammable gas at room temperature. They are also used in the manufacture of electrical wire insulation and cables, piping, industrial and household equipment, medical supplies, food packaging materials, and building and construction products. History. Numerous attempts have been made to convert ethane directly to vinyl chloride. Then, finally, on January 23, 1974, B.F. Goodrich informed the government and issued a press release stating that it was "investigating whether the cancer deaths of three employees in the polyvinyl chloride operations at its Louisville, Ky. plant were related to occupational causes. Because of its low boiling point, liquid VCM will undergo flash evaporation (i.e., autorefrigerate) upon its release to atmospheric pressure. Even though residence time and temperature are carefully controlled, it produces significant quantities of chlorinated hydrocarbon side products. Jim Morris, "In Strictest Confidence. Hence, to save the processing cost for manufacturing ethylene, numerous attempts have been made to convert ethane directly to vinyl chloride. "Vinyl chloride." Particularly, much more attention should be drawn to liver changes. et al. "Contaminants in soil: Collation of toxicological data and intake values for humans. World Health Organisation (WHO) (2000). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Containers used for handling vinyl chloride at atmospheric temperature are always under pressure. Vinyl chloride is stored as a liquid. Some major manufacturers, retailers and companies are moving away from using … , In the late 1960s, the cancers that all of these studies warned of finally manifested themselves in workers. , Ethane is readily available, particularly on the U.S. gulf coast. Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: indoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. Vinyl chloride is a colorless, flammable gas that evaporates very quickly. "Effects of Single and Repeated Exposures of Humans and Rats to Vinyl Chloride" Laboratory of applied biodynamics, Yale University and Department of Pathology. China still uses this method to produce vinyl chloride due to the large reserves of coal from which acetylene is produced. ", Harrison, Henrietta (2008). It does not occur naturally and must be produced industrially for its commercial uses. In the U.S., OSHA lists vinyl chloride as a Class IA Flammable Liquid, with a National Fire Protection Association Flammability Rating of 4. , Transporting VCM presents the same risks as transporting other flammable gases such as propane, butane (LPG) or natural gas (for which the same safety regulations apply). Food (ingestion) is a trivial source of exposure. Lester, D. et al. Higher than normal levels of vinyl chloride may be present inside new … Vinyl chloride is an intermediate in the production of PVC plastic used in a wide range of products including pipes, wire and cable coatings, packaging materials, upholstery for automobiles and furniture, wall and floor coverings, flooring, backing for carpet, house wares, automotive parts, medical devices, and children’s toys. Rigid resins provide most of the growth … The Dow Chemical Company. While this method was widely used during the 1930s and 1940s in the West, it has since been superseded by more economical processes based on ethylene in the United States and Europe. Supplement 7, 1987. The direct feed of ethane to vinyl chloride plants could thus considerably decrease the raw material costs and make the plants less dependent on cracker capacity. Uninhibited vinyl chloride may be stored either under refrigeration or at normal atmospheric temperature in the absence of air or sunlight but only for a duration of a few days. Rigid vinyl, also known as unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC), is a strong and lightweight film. US Department of Health and Human Services. Until the mid-seventies, vinyl chloride was used in a variety of consumer products, including cosmetics, as a propellant in aerosol cans, and as a coolant. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC); PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. PubChem Substance ID 24864136 Vinyl chloride and Poly vinyl chloride PVC health hazards: Possible Hazards Associated with Vinyl Building Products, Production, Odors in Normal Use, or During Demolition, Disposal, Combustion in Fires? EC Number 200-831-0. Midland Michigan. Vinyl chloride is also produced as a combustion product in … Copenhagen. Reprinted from Industrial Medicine and Surgery.  Vinyl chloride was briefly used as an inhalational anaesthetic, in a similar vein to ethyl chloride, though its toxicity forced this practice to be abandoned. Molecular Weight 62.50 . It is also used in making bottles, non-food packaging, food-covering sheets, and cards (such as bank or membership cards). Product purity and yields are generally very high. The US OSHA limits vinyl chloride exposure of workers to no more than 1 ppm for eight hours or 5 ppm for 15 minutes. Approximately 98% of vinyl chloride monomer produced is used to produce polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The US EPA and FDA limit vinyl chloride in drinking water to 0.002 ppm. However, the first effective industrial process was based on the hydrochlorination of acetylene.  In the past VCM was used as a refrigerant.. School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.  The United States currently remains the largest VCM manufacturing region because of its low-production-cost position in chlorine and ethylene raw materials. 91. They obtained it by treating 1,2-dichloroethane with a solution of potassium hydroxide in ethanol.. 1969. In order to replace mercuric chloride in industrial applications gold and platinum based catalysts have recently been proposed as viable alternatives, ensuring economical viability by extremely low metal loading (nanostructuring to the single atom level). Wilson, Rex H et al. Unlike some other known carcinogens, vinyl chloride is a manmade substance. "Toxicological Profile for vinyl chloride". "Pathology of Vinyl Chloride" International Congress on Occupational Health. About 13 billion kilograms are produced annually. It is volatile, so the primary exposure is via inhalation as against food or water with occupational hazards being highest. Vinyl chloride has also been used in the past as a refrigerant. 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