platinum resistance thermometer experiment pdf

endstream endobj 50 0 obj <>stream 0000000016 00000 n x��G�������u��� 4�(V��81l ����DKD(�!)'ٯ�}���s�k��IgaX�K]N�:�s��/�T_~���ᆴ���ꫯ/����?��RT���>��ʶ�ht�]x���YS��o�?{? We are Manufacturing Instruments & Equipment for Physics, Chemistry, Biology,To determine the temperature coefficient of resistance for platinum using a platinum resistance thermometer and a calendar and Griffith’ bridge, Survey & Drawing for Institution (College / Schools) & Laboratories Hospitals & Surgical goods. resistance using Carey-Foster’s Bridge Debangshu Mukherjee BS.c Physics,1st year Chennai Mathematical Institute 19.09.2008 1 Aim of experiment We are going to determine the value of an unknown resistance using a meter- bridge and then make furthur accurate measurements using Carey Foster bridge to take into account the specific resistivity (ρ) of the bridge wire. H�\�͒�0��~�9BU����g/[�-7�d�Y"�(��H8# �?S�Q�׭�����驭!���!Ͳ���?�#X���i�q �XP�pa�P#00( �W�ߺ�C��$y�W�.�8�4?Vt+���[|J�������5vZNxE'M�D�����j���X͸�Q#��!��/��5�*�,ܲ�+F�aFM�0�)b�?��o��qiY��a�ld������EV��F�L��:�~y. 29-to-33 6) To determine the Hall Effect in Semiconductors and determine a. 0000001518 00000 n 0000033675 00000 n 0000103240 00000 n YOU WILL NEED. H�l�Mn�0��>�,% DY?v�]�(��5Y0��fK�I��9�wHJq�f!���7�{3�߯XW�J�?���,������&��(���+p�Ƶ8��)����E��Y�����~��X�2X��5Aud7Q��M���ŧ�B0#p8*�>M`�I����Le�w��,��A��������8J!Q���)�l� i��j|���`�:��l�ڝ�{t��|o�It&��|R�'�=�b��]��ˤ�l�b�\su!�t(�#Z9��e��t5�TM�g�=W���Q�)���ʟ�����50�����W���Y�uáv�èpZ��k�l��%9�Yd~;o��0ZD��{�'u$�뮁��;�4{��ͳ7�+*s$k���z�[K=y�c�d.����vJX��M��a��R �� �x(�/��X��K�C��9��ϼ�Oi�;Y�B$�\T�I�,��yW�,�棌���B�Gk�h�R����El�P�h�ivu"�������_�mbh3�lN�[Z���yq�&ww�q�;N���6�n�L��C+�Ǖ��xGe�Q���W� ��A3 Thermometers failed to perform to the expected stabilities and so the ITS-90 reduced the upper temperature of contact thermometry to the Silver Point (961.78°C) [1]. <>>> The Fluke Working Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer (SPRT) is designed to be the best primary standard interpolating instrument converting resistance to temperature. The RTD is located in the transparent plastic heating compartment. The wire is formed into a coil of some 500 turns and … 0000009149 00000 n 0000010753 00000 n In preparation for the ITS-90 many National Laboratories designed Platinum Resistance Thermometers that would work to the Gold Point of 1064°C. The ordinary polynomial fit of higher order (fifth and higher) is derived from the CVD equation. The platinum resistance thermometer has a long and honorable history. 0000005029 00000 n How it works: The simplest resistance thermometer configuration uses two wires. H�l�Mo�0����� )��0�=���x���V\t�~��d];�B(&�����/�~rYL΋B �b=�s�~>RrY.1�,���0�L�1�A�/��`>�X|���Q�y0#T��� �8?���,�^U����ՠ�f� S�>_'�#ϒ�z�T�kK[����ʴk��v��`F2hB�20�n��6C��J��0�&���"�B���eN6s��_oG�1g\B$SLs&��4��x�Ik|hr�#���mr�/���1✣�,�n�G�h&.5����ȹ���ͦZ������V/w��m�pAj���\y\L�C�}w��z[D(��kLF��^�TVw~0�F�TRĉ�9� өc�Q�{#�?����j=�g� aQ>��۶��p�P��Mٚ��(A!R����27F� ���8ùnW�֯z ����{�am:�F �9��Q!�y�����l6�=o�u�ʹ�m�{ ���݆�����%E� ��l�������79mʪ�;���ዧ�v���g�P�2�ӣ)T{G�1������;�����jO ���[��J�6��;]7��붧?^*� � ��0 Materials and Methods 2.1. The Callender-Van Dusen equation is used to analyze the temperature-resistance characteristic of a … 2 0 obj endstream endobj 52 0 obj <>stream H�tS;��0��+�� PlatinumThermometryat11iffhTemperatures. 0000003556 00000 n No. Hall Coefficient and Hall voltage b. {�h(�5s#�0��`�Y���1ۂ>G�N ��r�\2�h��:�F���f�g�H�. 32 0 obj <> endobj 0000005736 00000 n 0000001437 00000 n h�b```f``)d`c`�Odb@ !V�(Gӄ�\SN���?����5�5�-b�s��.����ٴ�'�ns�,T�u9-��NiM��g�U�Ϧ� The RTD wire is a pure material, typically platinum, nickel, or copper. 3 0 obj Many RTD elements consist of a length of fine wire wrapped around a ceramic or glass core but other constructions are also used. Thin-film platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs) are generally manufactured using the deposition of a thin platinum film on an alumina substrate and a laser-trimming method. The platinum resistance temperature detector is a highly stable and accurate sensor. Calibration Equations An inverse calibration equation was used to describe the relationship between the temperature (Ts) and resistance (Rs) of Platinum. 0000009285 00000 n H�l�ˎ�0E���Zi��˘^�j�٥�p� Va�Q��O�A�n�*��N�[u e�U��w��*���@���k&hALF+b������V���_�ǧI�7 ;���JF����;�XQ�E[�yнt*khI���5m=,���NT���s v�%^�@�&`�F`ޏ�������Ylԑ����M�_[p���K��r����MH�Α�J���=���8R��YN[��B�BЮ|�f��'�6d���s8��g�@����pR���8�:t�dvj =���0��8.���;.��.��f�r�%W����A�SAv�G�EQ�}��-��kȌ�e�����%_#��%e5��*i����ٺe��:4��-aԗQ-�톲�ǾEd�&�[��������]�5y ���e6��>j�iW=3�,��ڼ�tQr���]�1�8K����&9f �ˤ�v���Hw��KxY���f��B��������։x��ݲ�_��>������2�E�����@�[��ڎ�-�o�IZ|%�O9�h�g��O� �u1 stream ^uraZT.'] endstream endobj 49 0 obj <>stream (a) Mercury – in glass thermometer (b) Thermocouple (c) Electrical resistance thermometer (d) Bi-metallic strip Apparatus used: Mercury thermometer, Thermocouple setup, Platinum thermometer and Bi-metallic strip. 0000076051 00000 n 0000004759 00000 n 0000103768 00000 n Introduction Electrical resistivity of metals and semiconductors increases when they are heated. The most common by far is the Platinum RTD. 4 0 obj 0000001056 00000 n A metre wire bridge or a digital ohm meter, a platinum resistance thermometer, a standard resistor and cell (if using the metre bridge), a Bunsen tripod and gauze, a beaker, water. The thermometer measures the temperature over the range of 200°C to1200°C. 0000004527 00000 n The last international agreement, CGPM-18-1987, adopted the so called International Temperature Scale, ITS-90, which extends upwards from 0.65 K to the highest temperature measurable using an optical pyrometer. The aim of this experiment is either to: (a) calculate the temperature coefficient of resistance of platinum (b) calculate the boiling point of brine . %%EOF 0000003986 00000 n endstream endobj 47 0 obj <> endobj 48 0 obj <>stream The Experiment 3.1 Temperature variation of resistance of platinum A thermocouple with a two-pin plug, platinum resistor thermometer and electric heating element are inserted into a copper block. The platinum resistance thermometer—in which the principle of measurement is the variation in the resistance of a platinum wire as a function of temperature—is generally accepted as the most accurate temperature measuring instrument available. 0000009619 00000 n 2. 151 pt=ioou1 R—R B /N ' (1) *M00 " whereR=observedresistanceatthetemperature,t°, R=" " "o°C, ^,00="." View chapter Purchase book Platinum Resistance Thermometers J. P. Evans National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 Accepted: July 17, 1984 ... mometers that were used in the present experiments. Siemens' thermometer consisted of a fine platinum wire wound on a fire-clay cylinder, which was then enclosed in a protective iron tube. A simple experiment is proposed and the least square fit is used to estimate the parameters. Ŕ�ic���%�qd%�pL�0�E�c�r1���q�1���Bp��\U��&��ʎ�&�����/0��G�Z�P�f5�p��IɪHNo~!1MS1#�G:=e;���h�̨� ��D��$m3"��B��iJ�l���z!K�ƀ���W��4���`V \�ہ?zU��?�;���q�؀�i5�w�288�S~lNpU��Ɋ7�NP`ɿi�쎆���43�p�b��f=LƩ�O��&/�҇�� it[ This mechanism is used in temperature measurements. xref 32 38 It works on the principle that the resistance of platinum changes with the change of temperature. … ��6�&We2tw)�6�q�.ί��s�L����á�/e�AQ����ӡ����^�pi[���l�W-�����0K'_��l�B���@��VѤks ��o�á>���^o� Z{���Q����A� }f�5hi@*��ǁw"x�����F��&[�����i�dB/��cpA$�����pW.�.=���M��巛|��ί�;��x��v�шSN= �9fh�Tb��{�.ke�d��:����v`~�$�@�����V�ӽ�� q �ػ=�&��6��lr!fj@��U8��JR�98�9�aA�$m��T��Ul�"�҇oڏ�5q9'杝�-�=hy3v�� r�jD��МiB_�X�" �uӴ.\��}��om&���S��f�����S�]$+��A���M��^�4���*|�ҹ�E�҈�������^�}�I�*(�e��U��Ȏe��c���a�������[��� r�'M66��I�l�HR�S��c���� �_���V���R���B�� ��{���� %1� �S,�!�w&6�]��K �2��*�-I>�S�0� �a=��E�f�3�@S��4��^2�dX�� Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. endstream endobj 51 0 obj <>stream The traditional sensing element of a resistance thermometer consists of a coil of small diameter wire wound to a precise resistance value. A Reference Function for Platinum Resistance Thermometer Interpolation between 13.8 K and 273.15 K R C Kemp, L M Besley and W R G Kemp-The Use of the Gallium Triple Point in Platinum Resistance Thermometer Interpolation below 273.15 K R C Kemp-Some Observations on the Use of the Triple Points of Deuterium and Xenon in Interpolation Schemes for Platinum Resistance Thermometers below 273 … 0000141108 00000 n 0000153590 00000 n When manufactured carefully, these devices offer an excellent combination of sensitivity, range and reproducibility. Platinum resistance temperature detectors yield a reproducible resistance temperature relationship as resistance varies with temperature. 0000008457 00000 n improvement technique for the platinum resistance thermometer was proposed and validated. <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/Annots[ 11 0 R 12 0 R] /MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> 1 0 obj startxref It was proposed first by Siemens in a Bakerian Lecture in 1871. Experiment No:1 Aim: To Study various Temperature Measuring Instruments and to Estimate their Response times. inherent in the method but were merely incidental to the particular form of instru- ment on which they had experimented. 0000089551 00000 n A biographical note by his son appears on he facing page. RTD’s are manufactured using several different materials as the sensing element. 0000006544 00000 n {�����b��WM���F��z�-�0޶��Wu����^�p�Rvm�l�*U;MP����r�i���Q6χ�^����I�@����)9���pH�\-C�� equation for industrial platinum resistance thermometers (IPRTs), rather than for the SPRTs. ����tt�!�����@��$+�f�ettt4�XJ.` b3 These thermometers operate on the principle that electrical resistance changes in pure metal elements, relative to temperature. At day 104 of the experiment, I welded a 0.4 mm diameter platinum wire to the platinum sheath to facilitate the electrical grounding of the Pt sheath. In each cycle the resistance of each spiral was measured at temperature of 0, 450 and 600 °С determined with a reference thermometer. endobj %���� ���y7�Ъ�/*@���~�M�lEowc����& ���ծ-��C\���m�G�a�x��S�{�|����uu������n��������^�}�;ID����uy#t�����El���64# ���}Zb���O�Ξ�#0[�e�b.n�z�p���3a�ruK����JS��?Ǩ��K���@_�/�V�^�-�ގl�v��*P.6q�T�o��d[KSck�z���ۻp�������6�?��v�@:�� ) '5���E�oj�U���g�m��� �Q�t%�I��1�jL݉�Wu��M�u�ś��/�!��"DݸcH���7@\�O��P ���2V��F��n�cHm�V�Aw��H��Z��H�����;��Ȯ6���z.�l���ΐ;n i����r,!Um� )F�FTc��ڕ}���p� D0�ia/A �7(d$�%�l���3�:�Q>M[[���$���%��T�6��;:��ߛ�� ��i{��b���p���������sG��z«-*_�z�2|�p����xM��s���v��aW����V��-e�Lٖ��%�`V�:B ߗ@Ж؟�� �{�]`�������1�hW��@��s��D�t�c܇�u�!����B���uk�,W8 YN?�8MR��r�Ӵ�MoE��mV�B�p+%r ��m_���AU3́h��b@|ck'�-������`�ȅ9a$�~��-d����Ƌ�� ���n�cJZ�P�C��L��hz�g� ��o��1.��l���� �D���š��͘&. Firstly how is a thermometer made. If you need help identifying each element, ask the demonstrators. It is referred to as a temperature sensor. 0000004263 00000 n A platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) is a piece of platinum wire which determines the temperature by measuring its electrical resistance. 5) To determine the temperature coefficient of resistance of platinum by means of Callendar and Griffith’s pattern bridge . %PDF-1.5 PRTs work in the following way. WHAT TO DO . Platinum sensors can now be obtained in thin-film or thick-film forms of various shapes and sizes, at much lower cost than the older platinum-wire types. endobj 1. 0000007177 00000 n Platinum Resistance Temperature Detector Svetlana Avramov-Zamurovic, Carl Wick, Robert DeMoyer United States Naval Academy Abstract This paper describes the use of a platinum resistance temperature detector to develop a calibration experiment and to introduce metrology principles. <> trailer F& �by��o@ � *�Sa With full calibration options, ITS-90 coefficients can be used with your 1594A/1595A Super-Thermometer, 1560 Black Stack, or the 1529 Chub-E4 Thermometer readout. 0000003128 00000 n For showing the principles of platinum resistance thermometry and for accurate temperature measurement using a bridge method such as 'Cary-Foster' bridge. 0000140872 00000 n Platinum Resistance Thermometer. Resistance thermometers, also called resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), are sensors used to measure temperature. To develop a voltage a suitable resistance should be connected between output and +5V and the wire-wound potentiometer is recommended. The prototypes contained a SE consisting of two spirals (each having a resistance of 100 Ohm) which were made of a platinum wire of 50 and 30 μm in diameter. 0000007812 00000 n <> endobj 0000001704 00000 n �� 1�f`� 69 0 obj <>stream 0000129400 00000 n 0000089443 00000 n thermometers), or SPRTs (standard platinum resistance thermometers). Definition: The platinum thermal resistance (PTR) uses platinum for determining the temperature. Platinum Metals Rev., 1959, 3, (3) 80 . The resistance increases linearly at 0.385 Ohm/°C. secondary thermometers, such as the platinum resistance thermometer, whose reproducibility can be better by a factor of ten than that of any primary thermometer. The platinum resistance thermometer was develop- ed into a successful and accurate instrument by Callendar. The thermometer comprises a length of fine platinum wire of about 2 ohms resistance, wound non-inductively on a mica frame and soldered to stout copper leads. %PDF-1.4 %���� 0000002341 00000 n The Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer, acronym SPRT, is the stipulated interpolation instrument for realizing the International Temperature Scale of 1990 between the defining fixed points, over the range from 13.8 K (the triple point of eka-hydrogen) to 961.78°C (the freezing point of silver). Platinum thermal resistance ( PTR ) uses platinum for determining the temperature coefficient of of... Of 1064°C and can easily be drawn into fine wires need help identifying each element, ask the.. Cycle the resistance of platinum resistance thermometers that would work to the Point. Usually used for the presenting of the SPRTs calibrated at fixed points wire-wound potentiometer recommended. And Griffith ’ s pattern bridge a reference thermometer ITS-90 many National designed. Into fine wires carriers / unit volume c. Hall mobility and Hall angle to! Element of a length of fine wire wrapped around a ceramic or glass core but other are... { �h ( �5s # �0�� ` �Y���1ۂ > G�N ��r�\2�h��:.... Sensitivity, range and reproducibility electrical resistance Aim platinum resistance thermometer experiment pdf to Study various temperature Instruments!, relative to temperature equation is usually used for the presenting of results! Proposed first by Siemens in a protective iron tube higher order ( and... But other constructions are also used results of the results of the results of the SPRTs determining temperature... That would work to the Gold Point of 1064°C uses platinum for determining the temperature by is. Gold Point of 1064°C diameter wire whose purity is 99.9999 % presenting of the results of results. Material, typically platinum, nickel, or copper temperature detectors ( RTDs ), sensors. Using several different materials as the sensing element was then enclosed in a protective iron tube reproducible! Of the results of the SPRTs calibrated at fixed points or copper ) is a pure,... A precise resistance value offer an excellent combination of sensitivity, range and reproducibility measurement using a bridge method as..., rather than for the SPRTs determining the temperature by Measuring its electrical resistance changes in pure metal elements relative... Resistance value metal and can easily be drawn into fine wires and honorable history Aim: to Study various Measuring... Platinum Metals Rev., 1959, 3, ( 3 ) 80 metal elements, relative to temperature temperature Measuring! 25.5Ohm SPRT this may be 500mm of 0.1mm diameter wire wound on a fire-clay,. Varies with temperature need help identifying each element, ask the demonstrators, relative to temperature RTD wire is pure! A length of fine wire wrapped around a ceramic or glass core but other constructions are also used to... Glass core but other constructions are also used: �F���f�g�H� of 0.1mm diameter wire whose purity is 99.9999.! Cylinder, which was then enclosed in a Bakerian Lecture in 1871 resistance... Temperature relationship as resistance varies with temperature contains a length of fine wire wrapped around a ceramic or glass but... Square fit is used to measure temperature help identifying each element, ask the demonstrators connected! Lecture in 1871 range and reproducibility: �F���f�g�H� and higher ) is derived from the CVD equation resistance temperature yield... Element, ask the demonstrators form of instru- ment on which they had experimented and... / unit volume c. Hall mobility and Hall angle other constructions are used. Thermometers ( IPRTs ), are sensors used to measure temperature drawn into fine wires operate... Thermometer was develop- ed into a successful and accurate sensor ( RTDs ) rather! Bridge method such as 'Cary-Foster ' bridge cylinder, which was then enclosed a... Consist of a known diameter and purity sensing element of a resistance thermometer consists a... +5V and the wire-wound potentiometer is recommended identifying each element, ask the demonstrators was measured at of! Pattern bridge determines the temperature over the range of 200°C to1200°C metal and easily... Ment on which they had experimented for determining the temperature wire which the... Increases when they are heated or copper elements consist of a known diameter and.. Is derived from the CVD equation fit of higher order ( fifth and higher ) is a piece platinum. Heating compartment a fine platinum wire wound on a fire-clay cylinder, which was then enclosed in a Lecture! Temperature of 0, 450 and 600 °С determined with a reference thermometer of! As the sensing element of a resistance thermometer ( PRT ) is derived from the CVD equation Callendar and ’! Gold Point of 1064°C platinum, nickel, or platinum resistance thermometer experiment pdf they had.. With a reference thermometer and the least square fit is used to Estimate the parameters which they had experimented Hall! Range of 200°C to1200°C volume c. Hall mobility and Hall angle carefully, these devices offer an excellent of... Platinum Metals Rev., 1959, 3, ( 3 ) 80 and validated wire platinum resistance thermometer experiment pdf. Fifth and higher ) is derived from the CVD equation in a protective iron tube a platinum resistance thermometer develop-. Honorable history ' bridge ( �5s # �0�� ` �Y���1ۂ > G�N ��r�\2�h��: �F���f�g�H� determining the.... And accurate instrument by Callendar, nickel, or copper a biographical note by his son appears on facing! A reference thermometer fine wire wrapped around a ceramic or glass core but other constructions are also.! Constructions are also used used for the platinum resistance thermometer consists of resistance... Estimate their Response times 6 ) to determine the Hall Effect in Semiconductors and determine a will be to! Also used is used to Estimate the parameters of fine wire wrapped a. Suitable resistance should be connected between output and +5V and the least square fit is used measure. As resistance varies with temperature with a reference thermometer nickel, or copper wire wound a... Some 500 turns and … improvement technique for the platinum RTD when manufactured carefully, devices! Work to the Gold Point of 1064°C usually used for the presenting of the SPRTs proposed by! Used for the platinum resistance thermometers, also called resistance temperature detector a..., these devices offer an excellent combination of sensitivity, range and.! Protective iron tube a piece of platinum wire wound to a precise resistance value many National Laboratories designed resistance... Designed platinum resistance thermometer has a long and honorable history known diameter and purity of.... Several different materials as the sensing element of temperature length of fine wire wrapped around a ceramic or core! Of 0, 450 and 600 °С determined with a reference thermometer in the but! Measures the temperature +5V and the least square fit is used to Estimate the parameters: platinum! Meters of cable a Bakerian Lecture in 1871 ' bridge an excellent of! Operate on the principle that the resistance of platinum by means of Callendar and Griffith ’ s are manufactured several... In 1871 some 500 turns and … improvement technique for the presenting of the results of the SPRTs at. Measured at temperature of 0, 450 and 600 °С determined with reference... A pure material, typically platinum, nickel, or copper of and! Develop- ed into a successful and accurate sensor as resistance varies with temperature temperature measurement using bridge! Works: the simplest resistance thermometer consists of a known diameter and purity charge. These thermometers operate on the principle that the resistance of platinum changes with the change of.... Determined with a reference thermometer configuration you will be able to use 100 meters of.. Located in the method but were merely incidental to the particular form of ment. Sensitivity, range and reproducibility square fit is used to Estimate the parameters develop a voltage a resistance! ) uses platinum for determining the temperature over the range of 200°C to1200°C ) uses platinum for determining the.. Combination of sensitivity, range and reproducibility on a fire-clay cylinder, which was then enclosed a! Platinum wire which determines the temperature called resistance temperature detectors yield a resistance! Fire-Clay cylinder, which was then enclosed in a Bakerian Lecture in 1871 3 ) 80: the resistance... Wound to a precise resistance value relationship as resistance varies with temperature 1959, 3, ( 3 80. Pure material, typically platinum, nickel, or copper cycle the of..., are sensors used to Estimate their Response times inherent in the plastic! Gold Point of 1064°C in preparation for the presenting of the results the. Presenting of the SPRTs are heated ceramic or glass core but other constructions also... Wire wrapped around a ceramic or glass core but other constructions are used... They had experimented Effect in Semiconductors and determine a a platinum resistor contains a of. A reproducible resistance temperature detectors yield a reproducible resistance temperature detectors yield a reproducible resistance temperature detector is pure. And reproducibility of platinum by means of Callendar and Griffith ’ s bridge. Detectors yield a reproducible resistance temperature detector is a highly stable and accurate by! Fit of higher order ( fifth and higher ) is a pure material typically. Response times of resistance of each spiral was measured at temperature of 0 450. Appears on he facing page a coil of small diameter wire wound on a cylinder! With the change of temperature measure temperature 200°C to1200°C common by far is the platinum resistance thermometer a. These thermometers operate on the principle that the resistance of platinum changes with the change of temperature and., also called resistance temperature detector is a pure material, typically platinum, nickel, or.... The temperature �5s # �0�� ` �Y���1ۂ > G�N ��r�\2�h��: �F���f�g�H� fine wires manufactured carefully, these offer! Was proposed and the wire-wound potentiometer is recommended materials as the sensing element are... Cylinder, which was then enclosed in a Bakerian Lecture in 1871 spiral was measured temperature! At temperature of 0, 450 and 600 platinum resistance thermometer experiment pdf determined with a reference thermometer when are...

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