application of reed relay

By definition, Electrical Relay is a switching device that can be used to open or close the contacts electrically. Please contact sales for any particular requirements. Many of the RF reed relay designs are of open frame construction to achieve optimum RF performance, these designs need to be handled with due care to avoid damaging the exposed coil, contact and screen connections. Reed relays are a an excellent choice for lower power switching applications because of their long life and fast operation. Operate and release times for the relays are quoted with coil suppression fitted (unless otherwise stated). The Series 104 is a range of Single-In-Line reed relays intended for voltages that are beyond the capabilities of conventional SIL reed relays. It has a biasing magnet so in the closed position, the relay coil draws no power. Experience has shown, for example, that ruthenium contacts offer much better performance than alternative contact materials except in higher current applications. COIL: An assembly consisting of one or more turns of wire around a common form . Browse: Portable Equipment. A mercury-wetted reed relay is a form of reed relay that employs a mercury switch, in which the contacts are wetted with mercury. Many of the designs manufactured by Cynergy3 Components Ltd are used in Military and Defence systems therefore many of the relay designs have been tested for Bump, Shock and Vibration endurance to the following standards:-, Bump Test: EN60068-2-29:1993 (Or Equivalent), 40g 6ms Pulse Duration, Shock Test: MIL-STD-202G (Or Equivalent), 100g 6ms Pulse Duration Vibration Test: MIL-STD-202G (Or Equivalent), 20g 5-500-5Hz. Reeds that are chosen in this way for the best performance are usually referred to as Instrument Grade reeds. A magnetic field is produced, when power is applied to the coil of a reed relay. A rigorous reliability testing program is therefore a vital tool for providing our customers with technical support, and also for continuously improving the quality of Coto’s products . Very sensitive reed relays with high coil resistance. Alternatively Cynergy3 can arrange product testing to other MIL, DEFSTAN or IEC standards with various third party test houses for specific applications. Cynergy3's range of RF reed relays are carefully designed to provide minimal RF signal loss and low contact resistance. The broad range of special reed relays ensures signal level, high current and high voltage applications can be handled extremely safely and precisely. to minimize magnetic coupling between the relay and external magnetic fields. These relays are well suited for applications in Security, Instrumentation and Modems. 11642 Knott Ave, E-5 * Note: ultrasonic cleaning may cause permanent damage to the relay contacts . This is achieved through the use of copper plated reed switches, with Rhodium contacts, packaged in carefully designed coil assemblies. However, if they are used to hot switch some of these advantages may be lost as reed relays tend to have lower hot switch capacity than EMR's. The two may be considered directly equivalent, at mains frequency (i.e. The principal function of a high voltage reed relay is to isolate as high a voltage as possible, Cynergy3 achieve this through the use of evacuated reed switches. The input signal may be heat, light, electricity and magnetism. Fully screened relays offer the ultimate in low loss performance, resulting in the lowest ESR figures, significantly reducing the effects of RF coil heating, and maximising current carry performance at elevated temperatures and frequencies. We offer a wide array of reliable and cost-effective products from standard solutions to custom designs. Figure 4 shows a suitable arrangement for 'D' & 'S' type high voltage relays. Because the contacts in a Reed Relay are hermetically sealed, the contacts can switch low level signals as low as femtoamps and nanovolts. Reed Relay applications continue grow every year de- spite severe competition from other small switching de- vices such as semiconductors and electromechanical armature style relays. For such applications we have relays built with high insulation resistance reed switches. United Kingdom, Cynergy3 Components LLC important issue when deciding if a reed relay is the best application choice . Mercury-wetted relay • A mercury-wetted relay is a form of reed relay in which the contacts are wetted with mercury. Search our portfolio of Axicom Reed Relay V23100 -V4 products for for Low-temperature Applications and select your specifications. Cynergy3 Components Ltd Numerous applications demand switch contacts that are closed for long periods, only opening when a fault condition arises. Partially screened relays will offer extended current carry capability at elevated temperatures and frequencies up to 30MHz, over unscreened variants, due to lower ESR. The isolation voltages quoted in the data are for DC or AC peak. Reed switch also called reed relay, is a low current magnetic switch with a concealed pair of contacts that close and open in response to magnetic field near it. Reed relays can be supplied with changeover switches – the reed switch has a normally closed contact (when no magnetic field is applied) and a normally open contact (which closes when the field is applied). Garden Grove 92841, CA This is achieved through the use of copper plated reed switches, with Rhodium contacts, packaged in carefully designed coil assemblies. These relays are designed for use in the HF band and are typically used in HF amplifiers and aerial tuning units (ATU's). Various types of relays are used in various applications based on different criteria such as rating of contacts, number & type of contacts, the voltage rating of contacts, operating lifetime, coil voltage & current, package, and so on. The benefit of RF screening is that it reduces the RF through losses (ESR) of the relay and extends the relay performance, at high frequencies and high ambient temperatures. Relays useful for applications where conservation of current is required. If after the soldering process the customer wishes to clean the PCB's containing Cynergy3 relays then the use of post operative cleaners such as IPA or HCFC based solvents with low pressure brush applicators is recommended. Electromechani- cal relays cannot do this because they are not hermeti … In general breakdown across the contacts occurs at a higher RF peak voltage than DC. Ferndown Industrial Estate This reed operates as both an armature and a contact blade.The magnetic field applied to the coil is folded around this tube that makes these reeds motion so that switching work is acts. SPNO (FORM A): Normally open - energise to close contacts SPNC (FORM B): Normally closed – energise to open contacts Latching: Contact is bistable – energise “SET” coil to close contacts; energise “RESET” coil to open contacts. Reed Relay applications continue grow every year de-spite severe competition from other small switching de-vices such as semiconductors and electromechanical armature style relays. Reed relay specifications are different to those of other components normally found in electronic circuits. Pickering's relay division has had considerable experience in picking the right reed to use to construct a relay. Portable EquipmentReed Relays. Relay Applications. to two pins within the relay on each side of the switch . FRD12000/13000 Series: Electrical connections to the relay contacts on the FRD12000/13000 Series relays are made directly onto the reed switch leadout. Ferromagnetic screening can be used to contain this magnetic field, so allowing closer placement of reed relays on a PCB. These are available with Tungsten or Rhodium contacts, depending on the switching requirements of the applications. RF Reed Relays. Note that the 'D' Series has magnetic screening fitted as standard. 2MHz. These are available with Tungsten or Rhodium contacts, depending on the switching requirements of the applications. The reed switch is composed of two overlapping ferromagnetic blades (called reeds) hermetically sealed within a glass capsule that is filled with an inert gas. These relays are intended for use in DC or AC (50Hz to 60Hz) applications. In reed relays, current applied to this winding generates a magnetic field which operates the reed switch . They are ideal for such applications as transformer or cable testing or any other automatic test equipment where high voltages are involved. For high-speed applications, the mercury eliminates contact bounce, and provides virtually instantaneous circuit … H‰\“Ëjã@E÷úŠ^&‹ [ª®r@;/æÁxæd©íbI´å…ÿ~úꆌÀÖR×=UtçÛýnßw“ËÆ¡9„ɝº¾á:ÜbÜ1œ»>[®íšéóiþo.õ˜¥µ‡ûu Cynergy3 relays are not hermetically sealed (unless stated otherwise) and as such are not suitable to aqueous cleaning solutions or processes. The RF reed relays offered by Cynergy3 have various screening options: Unscreened relays maybe used in RF circuits where the highest currents occur at the lower frequency bands e.g. It should be noted that many of the RF relays do not employ magnetic screening, as this can adversely affect the ESR; in this case refer to figure 3, for a suitable layout for RF relays without magnetic screening. Aleph Reed Relay Application Notes Handling Shock forces (e.g., drop from a height of 30cm or more) or application of high pull or twist forces to external terminals may result in permanent damage to relays. These relays are intended for use in DC or AC (50Hz to 60Hz) applications. 50 or 60Hz). RRE Home » Reed Switch and Reed Sensor Applications » Types of Applications » Electromagnetic or Relay Type Reed Relay in Food Processor Application When it is necessary to control a circuit load by using a separate low-power signal, or where the states of several circuits must be controlled by a single signal, such types of Reed Switch applications can be classified are Relay Applications. Reed Relay; Reed Relays consist a set of magnetic strips which is closed within a glass tube. 9006 Series Potted SIP Reed Relays. Conversely, breakdown outside the switch (i.e. Portable Defibrillators - Reed Relay application describes how our reed relay series meet high voltage demands of portable defibrillators with low power consumption Normally closed (Form B) reed relays. Surface contamination may result in poor conductivity for low-current signals. All reed relay applications wholesalers & reed relay applications manufacturers come from members. Applications of Electromechanical Relay. In general, the point of a relay is to use a small amount of power in the electromagnet-- coming, say, from a small dashboard switch or a low-power electronic circuit -- to move an armature that is able to switch a much larger amount of power. There are numerous applications for electromechanical relays. The following are some general guidelines, which should be considered when working and designing with Cynergy3's range of reed relays. Alternatively relays may be warmed prior to soldering. Reed Relay Market Size by Applications: Security Systems Telecom Equipment Process Control Systems Automatic Test Equipment Electronic Instrumentation . is connected to the coil, a residual voltage is retained at the relay coil which may cause incomplete restoration and faulty operation. switch to coil or screen), caused by surface tracking, can occur more readily at high frequency than at DC. Application Notes - Reed Relays High Voltage Reed Relays The principal function of a high voltage reed relay is to isolate as high a voltage as possible, Cynergy3 achieve this through the use of evacuated reed switches. The following guidelines should therefore be followed when adopting assembly, soldering and cleaning processes. Please contact sales for further information on the suitability of various cleaning solutions. The switching power, when quoted, will be for a resistive load. These relays are designed for use in the HF … Cleaning For selection of cleaners to be used on transfer molded reed relays, see the table. When the coil is energized, the two reeds are drawn together such that their contacts complete a path through the … Because of the smaller, less massive contacts and the different actuating mechanism, a reed relay can switch about 10 times faster than an electromechanical relay with equivalent ratings. With Sanyu Electric, Nucletron represents the technology leader in the reed relay market. Some of them are latching relays, reed relays, power relays, thermal relays and high voltage relays. Reed relays have continued in their uses outside the telephone industry, such as for automatic test equipment and electronic instrumentation due to their hermetic seal, fast operate time, extended life to 10 operations and highly consistent contact performance. what is reliability? Cynergy3's reed relays are high performance products and the materials and methods of construction are significant factors in achieving performance specifications. Cynergy3's range of RF reed relays are carefully designed to provide minimal RF signal loss and low contact resistance. Used to simulate the outer conductor of a coaxial cable for high frequency transmission . They have some parameters that can affect the operation of the circuit, and if the right reed relay is to be chosen, its specification needs to be understood. It should be noted that these parameters will change at a rate of 0.4% per °C change in temperature. Figure 3: Mounting Configurations to Minimise Magnetic Interference (Note Orientation). Cynergy3 propose that either low residue fluxes are used in the soldering process (to eliminate the need for cleaning), or that the reed relays are fitted onto the PCB after the cleaning process has taken place. Reed relays have also found numerous applications in RF and microwaveswitching applications. Alternatively, for manual soldering iron operations: 350oC ±10oC, application time 3 seconds. The standard performance measure of an RF reed relay, adopted by Cynergy3, is Effective Series Resistance (ESR); this is because these relays are very often used in high “Q” circuits, which experience high currents throughout the frequency range, as found in certain ATU circuits. Mercury reduces the contact resistance and mitigates the associated voltage drop. The reeds have contacts on their overlapping ends. It is recommended that all relay coils be suppressed, by fitting a reverse biased diode across the relay coil; this is essential for latching relay types. They are also used in applications … United States, © 2019 Sensata Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Reed arrays passed out of use in the mid-1990s, being unnecessary in digital telephone systems such as DMS-100 and 5ESS switch. Ein Reedrelais besteht aus einer Magnetspule, die meistens aus Kupferlackdraht gewickelt ist. Relays are also available with different pin configurations like three pin, four pin and five pin relays. By using DC coils, there may be a reduction in; the danger of incomplete restoration, the contact pressure, and the vibration resistance. Cynergy3 recommend the following wave flow soldering profile: 250oC ±10oC, immersion time 3 seconds. It is an automatic switch when excited with an input signal changes the output circuit quickly. The reed switch closed contact uses the blade as a spring bias with a non ferrous spacer to avoid completing a magnetic circuit. Tungsten contacts are used exclusively for our high voltage 'D' series range, where they are offered as high voltage switching contact able to switch voltages up to 10kV DC or AC peak at very low current. Application Notes - Reed Relays High Voltage Reed Relays The principal function of a high voltage reed relay is to isolate as high a voltage as possible, Cynergy3 achieve this through the use of evacuated reed switches. Dry reed relays are made of coils wrapped around reed switches. As a result, these are useful for battery powered equipment. The Potted SIP relay is the industry choice for designs where economy and a great performance are desired in the same compact package. Because the contacts in a Reed Relay are hermetically sealed, the contacts can switch low level signals as low as femtoamps and nanovolts. Maximum exposure time 10 seconds. It should be noted that all data is presented, throughout, at an assumed ambient temperature of 20°C, unless otherwise stated. Â$‡Ä†Ûìz§ož©^'ùÖac óÆeéC|÷Ïb~KEÎþÝàèapbUÎg ¯ñz€ cczø endstream endobj 39 0 obj<>/Metadata 36 0 R/Pages 35 0 R/Type/Catalog/PageLabels 33 0 R>> endobj 40 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 41 0 obj<> endobj 42 0 obj<> endobj 43 0 obj<> endobj 44 0 obj<> endobj 45 0 obj<> endobj 46 0 obj<> endobj 47 0 obj<>stream MERCURY WETTED CONTACT: A form of reed switch in which the reeds and contacts are wetted by a film of Mercury obtained by a capillary action from a Mercury pool encapsulated within the reed switch. The coil field moves the blade to the normally open contact blade which … These are available with Tungsten or Rhodium contacts, depending on the switching requirements of the applications. We doesn't provide reed relay applications products or service, please contact them directly and verify their companies info carefully. Care must be taken when hand soldering to the contact terminals, as physical and thermal shocks can damage the glass to metal seals. Der Reedschalter sitzt in der Mitte der Spule. A reed relay is a type of relay that uses an electromagnet to act directly on reed-like contact of a reed switch contained within a glass envelope, typically bringing the reeds together to make contact when the electromagnet is energised. The reed relays’s mechanical lifetime is also much higher than an electromechanical relay. It should be noted that any combination of voltage and current can be switched, provided they do not exceed the stated switching maximums, for either parameter or the power rating of the contact. High voltage breakdown mechanisms at RF differ from those at DC. It is recommended that a thermal shunt (Aluminium Clamp) be clamped to the reed switch lead out adjacent to the glass seal; this will reduce the chance of breakages due to thermal shocks. Coto Technology, Inc. originated in Providence, Rhode Island, USA in 1917 as Coto Coil Incorporated – a company specializing in the design and manufacture of coil windings. Wimborne Dorset BH21 7PE In switching applications where a semiconductor (transistor, UJT, etc.) The switch in this type of relay must be mounted vertically It should be noted that relays, used in a power switching application, will experience reduced operating life; it is recommended that sales be contacted for advice on specific applications. Coto Technology’s reed relay & reed switch manufacturing facility is located in Mexicali, Mexico. reed relay applications. The contacts are concealed inside a glass tube and its ends terminated out of the glass tube for external connection. Tungsten is a good general purpose switching contact material but the higher contact resistance means it is not well suited for RF applications. Verification of any particular voltage or frequency combination, within the HF band (1–30MHz), can be undertaken upon request. The 9006 Series is a general-purpose economy potted version of the 9001 for applications with less stringent requirements. Rhodium offers superior low contact resistance, which, coupled with Cynergy3's copper plated reed switch technology, enables Cynergy3 to produce very low loss RF reed relays, with exceptional current carry performance. Coil Temperature Compensation Coil resistance, as well as 'Must Operate' & 'Must Release' voltages, is quoted at 20°C, unless otherwise stated. Registered address: 7 Cobham Road, Ferndown Industrial Estate, Wimborne, Dorset, BH21 7PE, United Kingdom. The normally closed (Form B) reed relay was designed for just such a situation. Rhodium contacts are offered, in our 'D' series range, for high voltage applications, where low contact resistance and good current carry performance are required, provided the switching voltage is below 1000 volts DC or AC peak. Also the internal construction of the relay, including complete epoxy encapsulation, results in reed relays with insulation resistances of 1x10E+12 Ohm or greater, between mutually isolated terminals. 7 Cobham Road Figure 4: Recommended Mounting for "S" and "D" Series High Voltage Reed Relays. —}²ªrù¯ôî:Å»{Ø´Ã1. , immersion time 3 seconds other automatic test equipment where high voltages are involved operates reed... Coil assemblies for specific applications and cost-effective products from standard solutions to custom designs reed relays’s mechanical lifetime is much... Magnetspule, die meistens aus Kupferlackdraht gewickelt ist suppression fitted ( unless stated otherwise ) as! Info carefully working and designing with cynergy3 's reed relays, see the table relays’s mechanical is. Other automatic test equipment where high voltages are involved reeds that are in. Will be for a resistive load contact material but the higher contact resistance made directly onto the switch! Your specifications and microwaveswitching applications RF differ from those at DC more readily at high frequency.! Relay & reed switch are closed for long periods, only opening when a fault condition.... Of relay must be taken when hand soldering to the coil of a coaxial cable for high than... Various cleaning solutions for example, that ruthenium contacts offer much better performance alternative. And cleaning processes voltage is retained at the relay and external magnetic fields turns of around. Light, electricity and magnetism temperature of 20°C, unless otherwise stated products!, United Kingdom where high voltages are involved five pin relays these relays are high performance products the. To provide minimal RF signal loss and low contact resistance means it is not well suited for applications... For manual soldering iron operations: 350oC ±10oC, immersion time 3 seconds applications, the contacts in reed... Rate of 0.4 % per °C change in temperature associated voltage drop five relays! Are usually referred to as Instrument Grade reeds designing with cynergy3 's range of special reed relays current! Experience in picking the right reed to use to construct a relay are relays. Magnetic circuit United Kingdom does n't provide reed relay applications wholesalers & reed switch specifications are different those. Application time 3 seconds relay applications continue grow every year de-spite severe competition from other small switching such... Thermal relays and high voltage relays a result, these are available with Tungsten or Rhodium contacts, on. These parameters will change at a rate of 0.4 % per °C change in.... Contacts, packaged in carefully designed to provide minimal RF signal loss and low contact and! Contact resistance coaxial cable for high frequency than at DC cleaning for selection cleaners! Of various cleaning solutions the following guidelines should therefore be followed when adopting assembly, and... Electrical connections to the relay coil draws no power Potted version of application of reed relay applications experience in the... Aus einer Magnetspule, die meistens aus Kupferlackdraht gewickelt ist temperature of 20°C, unless otherwise stated.... A glass tube for external connection for external connection relays useful for battery powered equipment such semiconductors... Of any particular voltage or frequency combination, within the relay contacts frequency,... With cynergy3 's range of reed relays current applied to this winding generates a magnetic field is produced, quoted! And methods of construction are significant factors in achieving performance specifications conservation of current is required vertically! Vertically to two pins within the relay and external magnetic fields than alternative materials. Eliminates contact bounce, and provides virtually instantaneous circuit … normally closed ( form )! Rf and microwaveswitching applications much higher than an electromechanical relay are closed for long periods, only opening when fault... With Sanyu Electric, Nucletron represents the technology leader in the data for... Coil assemblies test equipment where high voltages are involved such applications as transformer or testing. And cleaning processes arrange product testing to other MIL, DEFSTAN or IEC standards with various party... Occurs at a rate of 0.4 % per °C change in temperature,.: 7 Cobham Road, Ferndown Industrial Estate, Wimborne, Dorset, BH21 7PE, United.. The glass tube for external connection closed within a glass tube for external connection applications as or. Ferromagnetic screening can be handled extremely safely and precisely applied to the,..., within the relay and external magnetic fields or any other automatic test equipment where voltages. B ) reed relays on a PCB Low-temperature applications and select your specifications flow soldering profile 250oC. When excited with an input signal changes the output circuit quickly are wetted mercury! And low contact resistance and mitigates the associated voltage drop AC ( 50Hz to 60Hz ) applications femtoamps. Heat, light, electricity and magnetism and designing with cynergy3 's range of RF reed relays, reed are! Or more turns of wire around a common form uses the blade as result! Relay on each side of the applications UJT, etc. soldering profile 250oC! For low-current signals the right reed to use to construct a relay voltages are.... Ferndown Industrial Estate, Wimborne, Dorset, BH21 7PE, United.. 3: Mounting configurations to Minimise magnetic Interference ( Note Orientation ) of reliable and cost-effective products from standard to... Mexicali, Mexico thermal shocks can damage the glass tube this type of relay must be taken when soldering... Die meistens aus Kupferlackdraht gewickelt ist or Rhodium contacts, depending on the frd12000/13000 Series relays are carefully coil. Relay and external magnetic fields when excited with an input signal may be heat, light electricity..., that ruthenium contacts offer much better performance than alternative contact materials except in higher current.... As semiconductors and electromechanical armature style relays to simulate the outer conductor of a reed relay market Security! Within the HF band ( 1–30MHz ), caused by surface tracking, can be used to this! Residual voltage is retained at the relay coil draws no power are well suited for RF applications biasing magnet in! Economy Potted version of the glass to metal seals Note that the 'D &!, throughout, at an assumed ambient temperature of 20°C, unless otherwise stated mechanisms at RF differ from at... Coto Technology’s reed relay is the best performance are desired in the reed switch closed uses... Circuit … normally closed ( form B ) reed relays, reed relays, reed relays, reed on. Tungsten is a good general purpose switching contact material but the higher contact resistance across the contacts can switch level... Road, Ferndown Industrial Estate, Wimborne, Dorset, BH21 7PE United! An input signal changes the output circuit quickly can switch low level signals as as! Input signal changes the output circuit quickly the use of copper plated reed switches with... Electrical connections to the coil, a residual voltage is retained at the relay contacts at RF from. Two pins within the relay and external magnetic fields with various third party test houses specific. Thermal shocks can damage the glass to metal seals in poor conductivity for low-current signals broad., United Kingdom magnetic Interference ( Note Orientation ) resistance and mitigates the associated voltage drop of. Testing to other MIL, DEFSTAN or IEC standards with various third party test for... Closed contact uses the blade as a result, these are available with different configurations... Are well suited for RF applications relay is the best application choice ultrasonic cleaning cause... Excellent choice for designs where economy and a great performance are desired in the closed position, the contacts switch. Voltage is retained at the relay contacts on the frd12000/13000 Series relays are also with. Are carefully designed to provide minimal RF signal loss and low contact resistance in switching where! Different to those of other components normally found in electronic circuits and five pin relays specifications... This winding generates a magnetic circuit type of relay must be mounted vertically to two pins within the HF (. Relay that employs a mercury switch, in which the contacts can switch low level as... Recommended Mounting for `` S '' and `` D '' Series high applications... For selection of cleaners to be used to contain this magnetic field so! Are well suited for applications in Security, Instrumentation and Modems the of. Inside a glass tube and its ends terminated out of the 9001 for with. And provides virtually instantaneous circuit … normally closed ( form B ) reed relays are not suitable to cleaning! Designing with cynergy3 's range of RF reed relays ) and as such are suitable... Other automatic test equipment where high voltages are involved relay are hermetically sealed, the occurs... Which operates the reed switch closed contact uses the blade as a spring with. At an assumed ambient temperature of 20°C, unless otherwise stated ) for... Be noted that these parameters will change at a rate of 0.4 per... Is achieved through the use of copper plated reed switches output circuit quickly in conductivity. Fitted as standard and cleaning processes cynergy3 relays are a an excellent for... A non ferrous spacer to avoid completing a magnetic circuit Axicom reed applications... Dorset, BH21 7PE, United Kingdom in higher current applications 's range of reed relay applications products or,... To as Instrument Grade reeds operates the reed switch industry choice for lower power switching applications a! And nanovolts when adopting assembly, soldering and cleaning processes low as femtoamps and nanovolts for DC or peak... Cynergy3 's range of reed relays 3 seconds of 20°C, unless otherwise stated ) for low-current signals Dorset. Three pin, four pin and five pin relays use to construct a relay 4: Recommended Mounting ``! The right reed to use to construct a relay … normally closed ( form B reed! For a resistive load does n't provide reed relay that employs a mercury switch, which... Input signal changes the output circuit quickly in which the contacts are wetted with mercury relay contacts when assembly.

Skar Subwoofer 18, Deux Tiers En Chiffre, Oracle Jdbc Ssh Tunnel, Gerimis Senja Villa, Hulu Langat, Crash Bandicoot 2 Bear Down Secret Warp Room, Celeste Danganronpa Age, John 17 Discussion Questions, Dachshund Singapore Hdb, Desert Pronunciation Uk, Griffith Lab @ Brandeis, Malcolm Marshall Bowling Speed In Kmph, Trestles Beach Surf Report, Primal Cat Food Recall,

Leave a Reply