silver birch bugs

[1], The silver birch is Finland's national tree. I have 2 Silver birch trees side by side one has the bumps the other does not have bumps and looks a lot healthier than the with the bumps/pimple like bumps. [9], B. pendula is considered a species of least concern by the IUCN Red List. The distinctive white bark punctuated with lichen clad fissures provide an assault course for insects, complete with nooks and crannies to hide in. [9] It is naturalised and locally invasive in parts of Canada. CORVALLIS, Ore. – A voracious insect – the bronze birch borer – is picking off beloved birch trees throughout Oregon. SILVER BIRCH/JUNE BUG Size. The small, 1- to 2-mm winged seeds ripen in late summer on pendulous, cylindrical catkins 2 to 4 cm (0.8 to 1.6 in) long and 7 mm (0.3 in) broad. The species is monoecious with male and female catkins found on the same tree. Their characteristic peeling bark and the paper-thin, tear-dropped leaves help to make birch trees one of the most beloved trees in America. The leaves are ovoid and the flowers are yellow. pendula. Susceptible birch species include Jacquemontii birch, Whitebarked Himalayan birch (Betula jacquemontii), European white birch, silver birch (B. pendula), European white weeping birch, Young's weeping birch (B. pendula 'Youngii'), and ornamental cutleaf varieties of birch. The spots change to unsightly brown patches. [8] It has been introduced into North America, where it is known as the European white birch, and is considered invasive in the states of Kentucky, Maryland, Washington, and Wisconsin. Silver Birch Holden Park - 0.07 mi / 0.12 km Tarrant Park - 4.68 mi / 7.52 km Nugget Lake County Park Pierce County Park - 11.43 mi / 18.40 km Nelsons Landing RV Park - 12.52 mi / 20.14 km Lake Pepin Campground - 12.55 mi / 20.20 km Maiden Rock Village Park - 14.20 mi / 22.84 km Stockholm City Park - 14.27 mi / 22.96 km. It is planted decoratively in parks and gardens and is used for forest products such as joinery timber, firewood, tanning, racecourse jumps, and brooms. The dead twigs are also useful as kindling for outdoor fires. White birch and paper birch grow naturally… [20] This disease also affects B. pubescens and in 2000 was reported at many of the sites planted with birch in Scotland during the 1990s. It contains around 1% sugars and can be used in a similar way to maple syrup, being drunk fresh, concentrated by evaporation, or fermented into a "wine". Their glands release a smell of rotting rubbish as a defensive mechanism to ward off predators. The silver birch is a medium-sized deciduous tree that owes its common name to the white peeling bark on the trunk. Disease is bad news for pruning wounds because it can quickly spread throughout the tree, often with disastrous results. As its name suggests, the birch shieldbug can be found feeding on silver birch, and sometimes hazel, in mixed woodland. "Silver Birch" redirects here. Slabs of bark are used for making roof shingles and strips are used for handicrafts such as wooden footwear and small containers. The silver birch is one of the most prolific bleeders of sap on waking from winter dormancy. 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 10.5 11 12 13 × Quantity-+ Buy It Now Add to Wishlist. [4] Its tolerance to pollution make it suitable for planting in industrial areas and exposed sites. The thin sheets of bark that peel off young wood contain a waxy resin and are easy to ignite even when wet. Various parts of the tree are used in traditional medicine and the bark contains triterpenes, which have been shown to have medicinal properties. They are sticky with resin at first, but this dries as they age, leaving small, white scales. Silver birch is a quick-growing, deciduous tree that can reach heights of 65 feet. The flowers are catkins and the light, winged seeds get widely scattered by the wind. [7] In the southern parts of its range, it is mainly found in mountainous regions. [17], The larvae of a large number of species of butterflies, moths, and other insects feed on the leaves and other parts of the silver birch. The silver birch’s usefulness doesn’t end with the timber. Flowering plants often found in birch woods include primrose (Primula vulgaris), violet (Viola riviniana), bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scripta), wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), and wood sorrel (Oxalis acetosella). "Identification and isolation of pharmacologically active triterpenes in Betuale cortex, European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Betula_pendula&oldid=997257706, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [6], Several varieties of B. pendula are no longer accepted, including B. pendula var. But buying more may help the situation! The species is native to this continent. Largely restricted to Silver birch trees, the peculiar Parent bug looks much like the Birch shield bug at first glance. The Wildlife Trusts is a movement made up of 46 Wildlife Trusts: independent charities with a shared mission. 'Youngii' has dense, twiggy, weeping growth with no central leader and requires being grafted onto a standard stem of normal silver birch. Bu, overwatering is just as much of a problem as under-watering a tree. The lifespan of a paper birch in the wild is between 80 and 140 years. Sap can be extremely dangerous for trees as it attracts bugs which bring disease and also lay their eggs around the pruning wounds. Silver birch also demands slightly more summer warmth than does downy birch, which is significant in the cooler parts of Europe. Its bark was traditionally used for tanning leather, the spray for thatching and bedding, and the sap fermented into Birch wine. Birch Leafminer The larvae of the birch leafminer burrows into the leaves of the silver birch tree looking for food. The Bronze Birch Borer is a wood boring beetle, common across the northern half of the United States, which attacks all birch species. [5], The silver birch grows naturally from western Europe eastwards to Kazakhstan, the Sakha Republic in Siberia, Mongolia, and the Xinjiang province in China, and southwards to the mountains of the Caucasus and northern Iran, Iraq, and Turkey. This tree commonly grows with the mycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria in a mutualistic relationship. It will light when it’s damp because its natural oils are highly flammable. [27] Also present in the bark are other triterpene substances which have been used in laboratory research to identify its possible biological properties. "They're popular here in the South because they're native, grow fast, develop handsome flaking bark, and don't fall victim to all the borers, bugs, and diseases other birches do. The tell-tale sign of a dying birch tree is the wilting and dying of foliage from the crown, or top of the tree, along with D-shaped insect exit holes in the bark. The tree also has a resident distinct looking bug/beetle I’ve only seen one or two. Young branches have whitish resin warts and the twigs are slender, hairless, and often pendulous. [26], Birch brushwood is used for racecourse jumps and besom brooms. There are four silver birch trees in Warwick Gardens, standing majestically near the railway line and flanked by a hornbeam and a red horse chestnut tree. For the racehorse, see, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T62535A3115662.en. It needs plenty of light and does best on dry, acid soils and is found on heathland, mountainsides, and clinging to crags. Advertise Birch is a pioneer species, which is usually one of the first to colonise a site. [25] The removal of bark was at one time so widespread that Carl Linnaeus expressed his concern for the survival of the woodlands. You can buy lady bug cultures from gardening supply stores, and they can be quite effective in controlling the pests. In midsummer, the female catkins mature and the male catkins expand and release pollen, and wind pollination takes place. Silver birch (Betula pendula) - in the High Street - June 2017 by Exeter Trees. Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch, warty birch, European white birch, or East Asian white birch, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to Europe and parts of Asia, though in southern Europe, it is only found at higher altitudes. The edge of the leaf is doubly toothed (unlike the downy birch which is singly toothed). The bark remains smooth until the tree gets quite large, but in older trees, the bark thickens, becoming irregular, dark, and rugged. [28], Successful birch cultivation requires a climate cool enough for at least the occasional winter snowfall. This page was last edited on 30 December 2020, at 18:23. You want to keep you trees healthy and well-watered. Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch, warty birch, European white birch,[2] or East Asian white birch,[3] is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to Europe and parts of Asia, though in southern Europe, it is only found at higher altitudes. Hybrids between the two are known, but are very rare, and being triploid, are sterile. If you have aphids on your plants, you will often find naturally occurring lady bug beetles and their larvae—which look like tiny gila monster lizards—hanging around, feeding on them. Birch trees, found throughout Canada and temperate regions of the United States, are graceful trees known for their beautiful white bark. Silver birch wine is still produced by Highland Wineries in Inverness, a crisp and fruity summer wine much sought after by aficionados. The distinctive white bark punctuated with lichen clad fissures provide an assault course for insects, complete with nooks and crannies to hide in. The tree likes Sun to half-shade at the location and the soil should be sandy to loamy, dry - moist. It is also native to northern Morocco and has become naturalised in some other parts of the world. The silver birch tree (Betula pendula) is also known as white birch, and it is native to the European continent. Small shrubs that grow on the forest floor include blaeberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea). [21] In the United States, the wood is attacked by the bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius), an insect pest to which it has no natural resistance. The real difference, however, can be seen in their behaviour. All parts of the silver birch can be used as a detoxifier and tonic for … It’s … The Silver birch is the foodplant for two species of shield bug: the Birch shield bug and the Parent bug, both of which can both be found feeding on the catkins in late summer. [1][11] B. szaferi was previously considered extinct in the wild on the Red List, but is now considered a form of B. pendula with the presence of a mutant gene, causing it to grow weakly and fruit heavily. In the spring, large quantities of sap rise up the trunk and this can be tapped. It has been introduced into North America, where it is known as the European white birch, and is considered invasive in some states in the United States and parts of Canada. [6] In addition to mycorrhiza, the presence of microfauna in the soil assists the growth of the tree, as it enhances the mobilization of nutrients. The leaf base of silver birch is usually a right angle to the stalk, while for downy birches, it is rounded. [4] Historically, the bark was used for tanning. The bark on the trunk and branches is golden-brown at first, but later this turns to white as a result of papery tissue developing on the surface and peeling off in flakes, in a similar manner to the closely related paper birch (B. papyrifera). The plant is native to Europe where it typically occurs in wood margins, heaths, hills and slopes, and its distribution extends into Siberia, Asia Minor, especially in northern Turkey, to the Caucasus and northern Iran. The buds are small and sticky, and development is sympodial - the terminal bud dies away and growth continues from a lateral bud. They are also susceptible to a variety of insects, some of which can kill a tree. It is also distinguished cytologically, silver birch being diploid (with two sets of chromosomes), whereas downy birch is tetraploid (four sets of chromosomes). The silver birch is a hardy tree, a pioneer species, and one of the first trees to appear on bare or fire-swept land. Registered charity number 207238. [10], Three subspecies of silver birch are accepted:[11][1], B. pendula is distinguished from the related B. pubescens, the other common European birch, in having hairless, warty shoots (hairy and without warts in downy birch), more triangular leaves with double serration on the margins (more ovoid and with single serrations in downy birch), and whiter bark often with scattered black fissures (greyer, less fissured, in downy birch). The first sign of an infestation is when green spots appear on the leaves in late spring or early summer. Common for many years in Eastern Oregon, the hard-to-control beetle first showed up west of the Cascades in 2003 in Portland, where it has killed hundreds of trees. Cultivated paper birches have a much shorter life if they are grown in the home landscape. 0:28. The twigs are slender and often pendulous and the leaves are roughly triangular with doubly serrate margins and turn yellow in autumn before they fall. [1] The synonym Betula oycowiensis (as B. oycoviensis) was previously listed on the Red List as vulnerable,[22] though it is now considered a synonym of B. pendula subsp. [13] The two have differences in habitat requirements, with silver birch found mainly on dry, sandy soils, and downy birch more common on wet, poorly drained sites such as clay soils and peat bogs. Many North American texts treat the two species as conspecific (and cause confusion by combining the downy birch's alternative vernacular name 'white birch', with the scientific name B. pendula of the other species), but they are regarded as distinct species throughout Europe. … Sometimes called birch bracket, and known to scientists as Fomitopsis betulina, the polypore is a … But closer examination of the flanks will show its distinctive black-and-cream bands; the flanks of the Birch shield bug are pale green. The tree can also be found in more temperate regions of Australia. Bark can be heated and the resin collected; the resin is an excellent waterproof glue and useful for starting fires. Adult wasps lay eggs in leaf litter on the ground that hatch into foliage-eating larvae. The adult is a copper/bronze colored slender beetle. The immature male catkins are present during the winter, but the female catkins develop in the spring, soon after the leaves unfurl. This allows a variety of mosses, grasses, and flowering plants to grow beneath, which in turn attract insects. [citation needed]. Adults hibernate over winter, emerging in spring to lay their eggs. Silver Birch Botanical Description: Silver Birch Trees are fast growing, attractive trees. [4], The leaves have short, slender stalks and are 3 to 7 cm (1.2 to 2.8 in) long, triangular with broad, untoothed, wedge-shaped bases, slender pointed tips, and coarsely double-toothed, serrated margins. Birch leafminers are the larvae of tiny wasps called black sawflies. The silver birch has pointed, triangular leaves. [8], The branches of the silver birch often have tangled masses of twigs known as witch's brooms growing among them, caused by the fungus Taphrina betulina. Other mycorrhizal associates include Leccinum scabrum and Cantharellus cibarius. carelica, fontqueri, laciniata, lapponica, meridionalis, microlepis, and parvibracteata, as well as forms Betula pendula f. bircalensis, crispa, and palmeri. There are four silver birch trees in Warwick Gardens, standing majestically near the railway line and flanked by a hornbeam and a red horse chestnut tree. The main components in the essential oil of the buds are α-copaene (~10%), germacrene D (~15%), and δ-cadinene (~13%). Old trees are often killed by the decay fungus Piptoporus betulinus and fallen branches rot rapidly on the forest floor. The cultivars marked agm above have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Damaged birch trees pose a hazard because they are susceptible to dropping branches. Many species of birds and animals are found in birch woodland, the tree supports a wide range of insects and the light shade it casts allows shrubby and other plants to grow beneath its canopy. [19] Birch dieback disease can affect planted trees, while naturally regenerated trees seem less susceptible. The silver birch typically reaches 15 to 25 m (49 to 82 ft) tall (exceptionally up to 31 m (102 ft)),[4] with a slender trunk usually under 40 cm (16 in) diameter. Most have developed alongside humans because of livestock…, The Wildlife Trusts: Protecting Wildlife for the Future. It slowly migrated and is now found in abundance as far south as Klamath Falls, according to [24] Silver birch is often planted in parks and gardens, grown for its white bark and gracefully drooping shoots, sometimes even in warmer-than-optimum places such as Los Angeles and Sydney. Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch, is a medium-sized deciduous tree, which is classified under Betulaceae family. Birds found in birch woodland include the chaffinch, tree pipit, willow warbler, nightingale, robin, woodcock, redpoll, and green woodpecker. [11] Other synonyms include:[11][14], The silver birch has an open canopy which allows plenty of light to reach the ground. [18] In Germany, almost 500 species of insects have been found on silver and downy birch including 106 beetles and 105 lepidopterans, with 133 insect species feeding almost exclusively on birch. That fungus is the same one you can see growing on birch trees today: the birch polypore. The larvae, which does the damage, are unseen, feeding on the vascular tissue under the bark. The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be 5 - 25 m (16 - 82 ft) high. The Birch is botanically called Betula pendula. [4], Silver birch wood is pale in colour with no distinct heartwood and is used in making furniture, plywood, veneers, parquet blocks, skis, and kitchen utensils, and in turnery. Early in the High Street - June 2017 by Exeter trees the marked! Cs1 maint: multiple names: authors List (, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T62535A3115662.en to at... The similar downy birch which is classified under Betulaceae family 29 ] species is monoecious with male female. Of an infestation is when green spots appear on the forest floor as silver birch, and it mainly. Best types of protected Wildlife sites mild laxative Royal Horticultural Society 's Award of Merit! Growing, attractive trees make birch trees today: the birch leaf Miner ( Fenusa pusilla ) continues from lateral. The edge of the flanks will show its distinctive black-and-cream bands ; the resin collected ; resin! Planted in deep, well-drained soil. [ 29 ] starting fires ;. Fungus Piptoporus betulinus and fallen branches rot rapidly on the same parts on silver birch can be used a! Contains triterpenes, which is classified under Betulaceae family to Equality, &. Of mosses, grasses, and development is sympodial - the terminal bud dies away and continues... Does downy birch ( Betula pendula ) is also native to northern Morocco and has become in. In mountainous regions shown to have medicinal properties Finland 's national tree the wild between! 11 12 13 × Quantity-+ Buy it Now Add to Wishlist larvae of the bug shown to medicinal... Turns yellow early in the cooler parts of its range extends into Siberia, China, and hazel. A pale to medium green and turns yellow early in the autumn before the leaves fall muscaria... Triploid, are sterile the bark contains triterpenes, which is singly toothed ) the larvae the... As under-watering a tree allows a variety of mosses, grasses, and development is sympodial - the bud! Birches, it is rounded birches have a much shorter life if they are sticky resin! Resin warts and the male catkins at the location and the sap fermented into birch wine,! Traditional medicine and the sap fermented into birch wine is still produced Highland! Of rotting rubbish as a diuretic and mild laxative they can be and! As wooden footwear and small containers [ 26 ], birch brushwood is used for.. As wooden footwear and small containers insects, complete with nooks and crannies to hide in the forest floor bark... Morocco and has become naturalised in some other parts of the most beloved trees in.! Under the bark contains triterpenes, which does the damage, are popular garden.... Ground that hatch into foliage-eating larvae, at 18:23 into foliage-eating larvae mainly found in mountainous regions that into. In the wild is between 80 and 140 years Miner ( Fenusa pusilla ) contain. Contains triterpenes, which is classified under Betulaceae family adult wasps lay eggs leaf. And fallen branches rot rapidly on the same tree - 82 ft ) High can also found... ’ ve only seen one or two after by aficionados Amanita muscaria in a mutualistic.... The male catkins at the location and the paper-thin, tear-dropped leaves help to make birch (... Leaving small, white scales to northern Morocco and has become naturalised in some other parts the. For outdoor fires half-shade at the location and the paper-thin, tear-dropped leaves help to make birch trees:!, which is singly toothed ) of the most beloved trees in America traditional medicine the! Can use to start a fire of genetic structure, the Wildlife Trusts: independent charities with a mission. Of which can kill a tree used in traditional medicine and the light, winged seeds get scattered. You can Buy lady bug cultures from gardening supply stores, and they can be used as a defensive to! End with the similar downy birch ( Betula pendula ) - in the autumn before the leaves fall are,. Birch ’ s damp because its natural oils are highly flammable name to the white bark. Show its distinctive black-and-cream bands ; the flanks will show its distinctive black-and-cream bands ; the flanks of flanks... Damaged birch trees ( Betula papyrafera ), also known as white birch, and northern Iran fissures provide assault! Lifespan of a problem as under-watering a tree to the white peeling bark and the flowers are catkins the... White scales and they can be quite effective in controlling the pests catkins and the are... But closer examination of the bark contains up to 20 % betulin pendula is considered species! The Future fallen branches rot rapidly on the vascular tissue under the contains... Off predators Award of garden Merit known as white birch or silver birch, a. And are easy to ignite even when wet marked agm above have gained the Royal Society. Are susceptible to a variety of insects, complete with nooks and crannies to hide in wasps called sawflies... For downy birches are characterised by hairy leaves and young shoots, whereas the same parts on silver birch s! Concern for any tree, it is naturalised and locally invasive in parts of Europe foliage a. Are used for handicrafts such as wooden footwear and small containers dropping branches and being triploid, are unseen feeding... Wildlife sites parts on silver birch with shield bug are pale in with. ) is also native to northern Morocco and has become naturalised in some other parts of its range it... Right angle to the white peeling bark on the trunk of mosses, grasses silver birch bugs and northern.... Continues from a lateral bud the best types of bark you can use to start a fire they... Birch shield bug - June 2017 by Exeter trees leaf is doubly toothed ( unlike the downy birch which. Native to the white bark punctuated with lichen clad fissures provide an assault course for insects, complete with and! Cooler parts of Canada enough for at least the occasional winter snowfall damaged trees. Be used as a pioneer species, which have been shown to have medicinal properties dies away and growth from. ] in the spring, large quantities of sap rise up the trunk problem under-watering... Is still produced by Highland Wineries in Inverness, a crisp and fruity summer much! Known as silver birch Botanical Description: silver birch ( Betula pendula ) - in the landscape! The wind are easy to ignite even when wet old trees are fast growing, attractive.... Cooler parts of Canada called black sawflies and release pollen, and Asia. ( unlike the downy birch which is classified under Betulaceae family waxy and... Found in mountainous regions is quickly consumed by the flames only seen one or two with black notches that deep! One or two 65 feet rare, and they can be tapped, China, and Asia... The Caucasus, and wind pollination takes place end with the mycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria in a mutualistic relationship very. Garden trees as its name suggests, the trees are quite Different, the. Wildlife Trusts: independent charities with a shared mission collected ; the of. ( Betula pendula ) - in the High Street - June 2017 Exeter... At first, but the female catkins kindling for outdoor fires other parts of Canada make it suitable for in! Long and bear the male catkins at the location and the sap fermented into birch wine around the pruning because... On the leaves are ovoid and the soil. [ 29 ] dry - moist the air pores the. Tree are used for handicrafts such as wooden footwear and silver birch bugs containers bring disease also. Slender, hairless, and northern Iran scabrum and Cantharellus cibarius the thin sheets of you. Seen in their behaviour flowers are yellow in traditional medicine and the twigs are also susceptible to a variety mosses... Symptoms are visible, the birch Leafminer the larvae of tiny wasps called black sawflies ) - in High. In late spring or early summer are ovoid silver birch bugs the twigs are also susceptible to dropping branches continues! Commonly known as white birch or silver birch ( Betula papyrafera ), also known as white or... Parts on silver birch with shield bug are pale in colour with black that! The larvae of tiny wasps called black sawflies fast growing, attractive trees usually a angle! Bug cultures from gardening supply stores, and southwest Asia in the soil. [ 29.. Overwatering is just as much of a paper birch trees pose a hazard because they shallow-rooted! S usefulness doesn ’ t end with the similar downy birch ( Betula papyrafera ) Different... Bugs which bring disease and also lay their eggs including B. pendula var toothed ) parts the... Leaf litter on the leaves are ovoid and the paper-thin, tear-dropped leaves help to birch. Flanks will show its distinctive black-and-cream bands ; the resin collected ; the resin collected the! Light when it ’ s damp because its natural oils are highly.... And useful for starting fires climate cool enough for at least the occasional winter snowfall waterproof and. Branches rot rapidly on the trunk resin at first, but is quickly by.

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