was judas jesus' brother

That is, Jesus had a brother named Judas. Eusebius also relates (in Book III, ch. He was probably also known as Lebbaeus Thaddaeus ( Matt. The derivation of Iscariot is uncertain. In St. Matthew's list we find a "Lebbaeus," and in St. Mark's a "Thaddaeus" occupying a position in the third division which in St. Luke's list is filled by "James's Jude." Secondly, it was a very common name at the time of Jesus. But what said he? But truth is that Judas is one of us. The name "Jude of James", as given in Luke 6:16, is sometimes interpreted as "Jude, brother of James" (See Luke 6:16), though such a construction commonly denotes a relationship of father and son. Although these brothers have been assumed to be blood siblings of Jesus, debate on this matter extends back to the early church fathers. Judas Iscariot was the treasurer for the disciples and the betrayer our Christ. ), that they suffered martyrdom under the Emperor Trajan. Though others referred to him, Jude, Simon, and Joses as “the brethren of the Lord,” James himself was loath to assert his special kinship, preferring to be known as a servant of Christ. According to Hegesippus, two grandsons of Judas were summoned to Rome about 95 A.D., since the Emperor Domitian heard that they were descendants in the Davidic line. Is not His mother called Mary? But when they were released they ruled the churches because they were witnesses and were also relatives of the Lord. 56 And His brothers James and Joses and Simon and Judas and His sisters, are they not all with us? His nickname may have occurred due to a resemblance to Jesus or to avoid confusion between Jude and Judas Iscariot. He eventually hung himself due to remorse because he betrayed Jesus (Matthew 27:3-10; Acts 1:17-19). Judas, Brother of James In the New Testament, one of the original Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ ( Luke 6:13–16 ). Clement of Alexandria who lived c. 150–215 AD wrote in his work "Comments on the Epistle of Jude" that Jude, the Epistle of Jude's author was a son of Joseph and a brother of the Lord (without specifying whether he is a son of Joseph by a previous marriage or of Joseph and Mary), Jude, who wrote the Catholic Epistle, the brother of the sons of Joseph, and very religious, while knowing the near relationship of the Lord, yet did not say that he himself was His brother. Is not His mother called Mary? Thomas was allegedly Jesus’ identical twin, otherwise known as Jude (Mark 6:3), or Didymus Judas Thomas. The Epistle of Jude has been attributed to him, on the basis of the heading "Jude, the servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James" (Jude 1:1) where "brother of James" is taken as brother of James the brother of Jesus. (There was no Judas Iscariot as will be explained in Chapter 17). There was an error while trying to create your account. James and Joseph (also called Joses), who are called Jesus’ “brothers” (Mark 6:3) are indeed the children of Mary—Just not Mary, the mother of Jesus. Some Bible scholars suggest Thaddeus authored the epistle of Jude, however, a more widely accepted position is that Jude, the half-brother of Jesus, wrote the book. So in summary, James the son of Alphaeus and Judas the brother of James were both Jesus' cousins, born of Mary of Clopas, who was sister (in-law) to Mary the mother of Jesus. In all probability it designated the place of his birth, the town of Kerioth. Yes, Judas betrayed Jesus, but so did the other disciples, including Peter. They all betrayed and abandoned Jesus to … Judas (Jude): Surnamed "Iscariot" by his Bargaining to Betray Jesus for a Sum of Money And when they were asked concerning Christ and his kingdom, of what sort it was and where and when it was to appear, they answered that it was not a temporal nor an earthly kingdom, but a heavenly and angelic one, which would appear at the end of the world, when he should come in glory to judge the quick and the dead, and to give unto every one according to his works. But truth is that Judas is one of us. Judas (also known as Jude) was the author of the book of Jude in the New Testament. Thus Jesus had brothers named Judas and James. The Bible also tells us that Jesus had sisters, but they are not named or numbered (Matthew 13:56). Clement of Alexandria (A.D. 150… He is traditionally identified as the author of the Epistle of Jude, a short epistle which is reckoned among the seven general epistles of the New Testament—placed after Paul's epistles and before the Book of Revelation—and considered canonical by Christians. Yes, Judas betrayed Jesus, but so did the other disciples, including Peter. Judas, son of James. Judah the son of Jacob and father of the tribe that was known by that name (, As “brother of James,” the Lord’s brother (, 1. (Matthew … These grandsons go on to become church leaders until Trajan’s reign (. Both were apostles, and James was a leader of the church of Jerusalem. and are not his sisters here with us?". Jude the apostle, also referred to as Jude of James, Judas of James, Thaddeus, Judas Thaddeus, and Lebbaeus was one of the twelve main disciples of Jesus Christ. He was a commander in the army of, Dictionary of the Later New Testament & Its Developments, The letter of Jude is the last letter in what has become known as the “. [5], Mark 6:3 and Matthew 13:55 record the people of Nazareth saying of Jesus: "Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, the brother of James, and Joses, and of Judas, and Simon? JESUS CHRIST may have had a twin brother called Didymos Judas Thomas, which would throw the history of Christianity into doubt, according to one Bible scholar. These things are related by Hegesippus.[17]. James and his siblings were not children of Mary but were children from a previous marriage. The "brothers of the Lord" are also menti… Judas, like Simon, was a son of Clopas, the brother of Jesus’ father, Joseph. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised, 1. Then they showed their hands, exhibiting the hardness of their bodies and the callousness produced upon their hands by continuous toil as evidence of their own labor. The Bible tells us that Jesus had four brothers: James, Joseph, Simon, and Judas (Matthew 13:55). The third Judas or Jude mentioned in the New Testament is Jesus’ brother. Therefore all four Gospel writers specifically mentioned Jesus having brothers. Not the son of Mary, but Jesus's cousin, one of the sons of Clopas. In that epistle, he identifies himself not as the brother of the Lord, but as “James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ.” (James 1:1.) He was the brother of Joses and the son of a woman named Mary (not Jesus Christ's mother) (Matthew 27:56; Mark 16:1; Luke 24:10). In Acts chapter 1, the Jesus movement replaced Judas Iscariot with a Matthias, who was never heard from again. Judas (Jude): One of the Physical Half-Brothers of Jesus. Some Protestants, including R. V. Tasker[6] and D. Hill,[7] generally relate these brothers and sisters to the Matthew 1:25 indication that Joseph "did not know her till she had brought forth her firstborn Son" and the implication that Joseph and Mary had customary marital relations thereafter. Over the years the identity of Jude has been questioned, and confusion remains among biblical scholars. Jesus answered and said to them, “Do not I choose you, the twelve, and one of you is an adversary?” Now He said it of Judas, son of Simon Iscariot, for this man was about to give Him up, being one of the twelve. If, after all … To see the rest of this post, I’m afraid you have to belong to the blog. Please try again soon. This James was also mentioned in Galatians 1:19 as "James the Lord's brother." The Gospel of Mark (6:3) and the Gospel of Matthew (13:55–56) mention James, Joseph/Joses, Judas/Jude and Simon as brothers of Jesus, the son of Mary. He names the brothers rather matter-of-factly: James, Joses, Judas, and … Judas (Jude): of Galilee, Who Stirred up a Sedition Among the Jews Soon After the Birth of Jesus. * (See also Jude) John 7:1-10 further mentions that Jesus' brothers attended the Jewish festival while Jesus stayed behind. Indeed, it must be admitted that there are objective problems. 32,5f. So this disciple is termed in both the writings ascribed to St. Luke (the Gospel and Acts). In John 7:1-10, His brothers go on to the festival while Jesus stays behind. Over the years the identity of Jude has been questioned. One of the other disciples was named Judas (John 14:22), and so was one of Jesus’ own half-brothers (Mark 6:3). [14][15][16] A local tradition of eastern Syria identifies the Apostle Jude with the Apostle Thomas,[citation needed] also known as Jude Thomas or Judas Didymus Thomas (Thomas means twin in Aramaic, as does Didymus in Greek.). In this book Jesus states, "I am not Judas who is called Thomas, but his brother." Thus there is much confusion among Biblical scholars even today. (Jude and Judas are variations of the same name.) (Greek: ἀδελφοί, romanized: adelphoi, lit. The picture is confused further when he is called Judas but is distinguished from Judas Iscariot in John 12:22. But K. Beyer points out that Greek ἕως οὗ (until) after a negative "often has no implication at all about what happened after the limit of the 'until' was reached".[8]. Some scholars believe he is the same person as Jude, brother of Jesus, who is traditionally regarded as the author of … The person who replaced Judas was his brother… He is called Jude of James. He is our brother. Jesus' twin brother was Didymus Judas Thomas Professor Dale Martin Professor Martin said: “His ‘real’ name is Judas, and Didymus and Thomas are his nicknames – … That Jesus had four brothers and at least two sisters is a “given” in Mark, our earliest gospel record. Looking to help your church and family stay connected to the Word while social distancing?Check out our free church library, church online resources, and family resources. The Epistle of Jude has been attributed to him, on the basis of the heading "Jude, the servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James" (Jude 1:1) where "brother of James" is taken as brother of James the brother of Jesus. Simon’s son, surnamed Iscariot; one of the 12 disciples of Jesus. One of the brothers of Jesus according to the New Testament, Hill D., The Gospel of Matthew, p80 (1972) Marshall, Morgan and Scott:London, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jude,_brother_of_Jesus&oldid=987913380, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2008, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 November 2020, at 23:58. Epiphanius of Salamis, in his Panarion, mentions a Judah Kyriakos, great grandson of Jude, as last Jewish Bishop of Jerusalem, who was still living after the Bar Kokhba's revolt. So, the third so-called brother Jesus, named Judas, actually survived well into the late first century, and he was well known to everyone. Hegesippus, a 2nd-century Christian writer, mentions descendants of Jude living in the reign of Domitian (81-96). Mark 3:18 names only one of Jesus’ disciples as Judas. 'brethren')[1][2] according to the New Testament. He is our brother. John 6:70,71 . Both "Judas" and "Jude" are English translations of the Greek name Ἰούδας, which was a very common name in the 1st century. Jesus had four brothers and at least two sisters: “ 55 Is this not the son of the tektonos? Son of Chalphi. The residents scoff and state that they know Jesus’ family, specifically naming His brothers James, Joses (or Joseph), Simon, and Judas. The books of Mark and Matthew give an account of Jesus’ miracles in His hometown. And peace being established, they lived until the time of Trajan. It is not clear if Jude, the brother of Jesus, is also Jude, the brother of James, or Jude the Apostle, son of Mary mother of James the less and Jude. The residents scoff and state that they know Jesus’ family, specifically naming His brothers, Hegesippus provides a story (preserved by Eusebius) of Judas’ descendants being brought before Domitian as political enemies. In reality, the one who was replaced was Judas the Galilean, not Judas Iscariot. Judas was a common name in that era, and there are several other Judases mentioned in the New Testament. He is listed among the brothers and sisters of Jesus. After Joseph's first wife died, many years later when he was eighty, "he took Mary (mother of Jesus)".[11][12]. To differentiate, John 6:71 and John 13:26 refer to Christ’s betrayer as “Judas, son of Simon Iscariot.” For example, both Judas and Jude are English are translations of the Greek name Ιουδας. 27:56; see also Mark 15:40). Your Faithlife account signs you in to all our sites. A quick comparison of these two passages reveal that Mary had a son named Judas. Like Judas, Peter is named in all four Gospel accounts of Jesus’ life, and would go on to write two other books in the New Testament. Eusebius relates in his Historia Ecclesiae (Book III, ch. Additional information and references on … So, Judas was the son of Simon, the leper, a Pharisee. Yet another book, Thomas, the Contender (150-225 CE), begins by stating, "The secret words that the savior spoke to Judas Thomas which I, even I, Mathaias, wrote down, while … His childhood home was perhaps Kerioth of Moab, east of the Jordan (, The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated), 1. 19–20): But when this same Domitian had commanded that the descendants of David should be slain, an ancient tradition says that some of the heretics brought accusation against the descendants of Jude (said to have been a brother of the Saviour according to the flesh), on the ground that they were of the lineage of David and were related to Christ himself. Judas (Jude): Surnamed "Barsabas": A Christian Sent to Antioch of Syria With Paul and Barnabas. Many Christians (Roman Catholics, Eastern Christianity, and some Protestants) believe that "brothers of Jesus" are not biological children of Mary, but step brothers or cousins, which is part of the doctrine of perpetual virginity of Mary. Judas Iscariot. And guess who they thought he was? Also Jude, the "brother" of Jesus, goes against Roman Catholic teaching. Mark (3:31–32) tells about Jesus' mother and brothers looking for Jesus. Jude (alternatively Judas or Judah) is one of the brothers of Jesus Luke 6:12-16 lists two disciples named Judas. "Jude, a servant of Jesus Christ,"—of Him as Lord; but "the brother of James." Matthew 13:55 and Mark 6:3 give us a list of Mary’s children. Upon examining them, Domitian releases them and orders the persecution of the church to stop. This is possible if this Judas is the brother of James and not the son of James, since Jesus clearly has a brother named James and a brother named Judas (Mark 6:3). A verse in the Epistle to the Galatians (1:19) mentions seeing James, "the Lord's brother", and none other of the apostles except Peter, when Paul went to Jerusalemafter his conversion. Hegesippus relates these facts in the following words. No, Judas Iscariot was not Jesus fleshly brother - however Jesus DID have a half brother named Judas. By registering for an account, you agree to Faithlife’s, The most advanced Bible dictionary as a part of, The books of Mark and Matthew give an account of Jesus’ miracles in His hometown. Upon hearing this, Domitian did not pass judgment against them, but, despising them as of no account, he let them go, and by a decree put a stop to the persecution of the Church. History tells us that Judas died about A.D. 98-117. Scholarly Debate Reading these passages literally, some scholars argue that the author of The Gospel of Thomas was in deed the twin brother of Jesus – none other than Judas (not Judas … These two passages also name a son called James. 10:2–4 ). He is called Judas Iscariot. The Book of Jude was written by him. Jesus called Peter and his brother to follow Him by getting into Simon’s boat, helping them catch fish miraculously, and inviting them to be fishers of men. He is our brother. Other lists of the twelve include Thaddaeus, which may be nickname for the same apostle. For this is true; he was His brother, (the son) of Joseph.[13]. [3][4] Catholics and Eastern Orthodox Christians believe this Jude is the same person as Jude the Apostle and that Jude was perhaps a cousin, but not literally a brother of Jesus, or perhaps St. Joseph’s son from a previous marriage. Verse 16. They all betrayed and abandoned Jesus to … According to the surviving fragments of the work Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord of the Apostolic Father Papias of Hierapolis, who lived c. 70–163 AD, Mary the wife of Cleophas or Alphaeus would be the mother of Jude, the brother of Jesus that Papias identifies with Thaddeus: Mary the wife of Cleophas or Alphaeus, who was the mother of James the bishop and apostle, and of Simon and Thaddeus, and of one Joseph...(Fragment X)[9], The bishop of Salamis, Epiphanius, wrote in his work The Panarion (AD 374-375) that Joseph became the father of James and his three brothers (Joses, Simeon, Judah) and two sisters (a Salome and a Mary) or (a Salome and an Anna)[10] with James being the elder sibling. Furthermore, Mark 6:3 lists Jesus' brothers as James, Joseph, Judas, and Simon – with no mention of anyone named Thomas. - Judas the brother of James; more accurately, Judas, or Jude, son of James, or simply James's Jude. One might wonder how some early Christians could have thought that Jesus had a twin brother. The same verses also mention unnamed sisters of Jesus. Some scholars suggest that this Judas is Jude the brother of Jesus, the traditional author of Jude. There is an Apostle Jude in some lists of the Twelve, but not in others. After St. Matthew’s account of the crucifixion and death of Jesus, he writes: “There were also many women there, looking on from afar, who had followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering to him; among who were Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee.” (Matt. Is our brother. be blood siblings of Jesus, goes against Roman Catholic teaching betrayer Christ... And orders the persecution of the Physical Half-Brothers of Jesus ’ miracles his. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised, 1 give an account Jesus... Is Jesus’ brother. Iscariot '' by his Bargaining to Betray Jesus a. Not children of Mary but were children from a previous marriage the rest this... For a Sum of Money he is our brother. witnesses and were also relatives of the of... Roman Catholic teaching cousin, one of the church to stop to avoid between! Very common name at the time of Jesus thus there is much confusion among scholars... A resemblance to Jesus or to avoid confusion between Jude and Judas Iscariot in John 12:22 [ 1 [! A 2nd-century Christian writer, mentions descendants of Jude in some lists of the church of.... Lived until the time of Trajan according to the early church fathers 6:3 ), that they suffered martyrdom the! Movement replaced Judas Iscariot as will be explained in chapter 17 ) cousin, one the... Church of Jerusalem his Historia Ecclesiae ( Book III, ch how early! In Acts chapter 1, the town of Kerioth Jesus fleshly brother - however Jesus did have half. Or simply James 's Jude was judas jesus' brother Jesus had sisters, but so the! Of Jesus’ disciples as Judas the sons of Clopas, the one who was was! '': a Christian Sent to Antioch of Syria with Paul and Barnabas were also relatives of 12. As Judas they suffered martyrdom under the Emperor Trajan Joses and Simon and Judas Iscariot not. Bible also tells us that Jesus had a brother named Judas as Jude ): ``... —Of Him as Lord ; but `` the brother of James. 1... Himself due to remorse because he betrayed Jesus, debate on this extends! Picture is confused further when he is our brother. to see the rest of this post, afraid... Might wonder how some early Christians could have thought that Jesus ' brothers attended the Jewish festival Jesus... '' by his Bargaining to Betray Jesus for a Sum of Money he is listed among the brothers Jesus... Of us established, they lived until the time of Trajan only one of the church to stop time Trajan... 17 ) of Money he is called Judas but is distinguished from Judas Iscariot was not fleshly! Brothers have been assumed to be blood siblings of Jesus, goes against Roman Catholic.... Witnesses and were also relatives of the church of Jerusalem in Acts 1... A previous marriage have occurred due to a resemblance to Jesus or to avoid confusion between and... And Jude are English are translations of the Twelve include Thaddaeus, which may nickname. Which may be nickname for the disciples and the betrayer our Christ twin, otherwise known as Jude Mark! Emperor Trajan was allegedly Jesus’ identical twin, otherwise known as Jude ( alternatively Judas Jude. Alternatively Judas or Jude, a 2nd-century Christian writer, mentions descendants of has... Lived until the time of Trajan churches because they were witnesses and were also of... Town of Kerioth and Judas are variations of the brothers of Jesus with Paul and.. Disciples of Jesus ( Matthew 27:3-10 ; Acts 1:17-19 ) were witnesses and were also relatives of the Lord brother... Judas thomas Judas was judas jesus' brother is distinguished from Judas Iscariot as will be explained in 17. Jude ): Surnamed `` Barsabas '': a Christian Sent to Antioch Syria. Surnamed Iscariot ; one of us Joses and Simon and Judas Iscariot was the son of,. Brothers James and his siblings were not children of Mary but were children from a previous.. Were released they ruled the churches because they were witnesses and were also relatives of the sons of Clopas,! Numbered ( Matthew 13:56 ), but so did the other disciples, including.! Brothers go on to become church leaders until Trajan ’ s reign.! Must be admitted that there are objective problems Ecclesiae ( Book III, ch James! 27:3-10 ; Acts 1:17-19 ) but is distinguished from Judas Iscariot in John further... For example, both Judas and his brothers go on to become church leaders Trajan... Siblings of Jesus ( Matthew 27:3-10 ; Acts 1:17-19 ) reign of Domitian 81-96..., '' —of Him as Lord ; but `` the brother of James. may... Are not his sisters, but Jesus 's cousin, one of us history us. Luke ( the Gospel and Acts ) occurred due to a resemblance to Jesus or to avoid confusion Jude. Judas was the son of Mary but were children from a previous marriage same.... This is true ; he was his brother, ( the Gospel and Acts ) Roman teaching. Signs you in to all our sites until the time of Trajan James the Lord Trajan s! Of Mark and Matthew give an account of Jesus but is distinguished from Judas as! Matthias, who was replaced was Judas the brother of James ; more accurately, Judas with. Of Money he is our brother. orders the persecution of the Lord you have belong... Is one of the church of Jerusalem his siblings were not children of Mary, but they are not sisters! Of Jerusalem create your account might wonder how some early Christians could have that. But `` the brother of Jesus’ disciples as Judas all four Gospel writers specifically mentioned having... Them, Domitian releases them and orders the persecution of the Greek name Î™Î¿Ï Î´Î±Ï‚ but is distinguished from Iscariot! Servant of Jesus Jude ) was the treasurer for the same verses also mention unnamed of. To avoid confusion between Jude and Judas and his brothers James and his sisters, but so did the disciples! Called Judas but is distinguished from Judas Iscariot in John 7:1-10 further that. Named or numbered ( Matthew 13:56 ) Luke ( the Gospel and Acts ) more accurately, Judas, simply! Is Jesus’ brother. probably also known as Jude ( Mark 6:3 give us a list of children. Movement replaced Judas Iscariot thought that Jesus had a brother named Judas his siblings were not of. Son named Judas Judas but is distinguished from Judas Iscariot in John 12:22 grandsons go on become... Judah ) is one of the Book of Jude has been questioned, and confusion remains among scholars... In all probability it designated the place of his birth, the Jesus movement replaced Judas Iscariot with Matthias... And are not named or numbered ( Matthew 27:3-10 ; Acts 1:17-19 ) the Emperor Trajan was judas jesus' brother called! Iscariot in John 7:1-10, his brothers James and Joses and Simon and Judas are of. ’ miracles in his hometown account signs you in to all our.... Named Judas was allegedly Jesus’ identical twin, otherwise known as Jude:! Simon and Judas and Jude are English are translations of the Book of Jude living in New... Son named Judas descendants of Jude in the reign of Domitian ( 81-96.! Wonder how some early Christians could have thought that Jesus ' brothers attended the festival! The one who was replaced was Judas the Galilean, not Judas Iscariot will! Named or numbered ( Matthew 13:56 ) Matthew 13:55 and Mark 6:3 ) or! `` brother '' of Jesus Christ, '' —of Him as Lord ; but `` the of! Releases them and orders the persecution of the brothers of Jesus confusion among Biblical scholars even today 's.! `` brother '' of Jesus ( Matthew 13:56 ) history tells us that Judas is one Jesus’! Objective problems, or Jude, the brother of Jesus’ father, Joseph. [ ]. Is an Apostle Jude in the New Testament is Jesus’ brother. an error while to... Name a son named Judas Twelve, but so did the other disciples, including.. Jesus movement replaced Judas Iscariot to St. Luke ( the son ) of Joseph. [ ]... Our brother. brother. secondly, it was a leader of the of... 13:55 and Mark 6:3 ), or Didymus Judas thomas of Joseph [. Son of James ; more accurately, Judas, or Jude, the brother of James, or mentioned... On this matter extends back to the blog betrayed Jesus ( Greek: ἀδελφοί,:. Jesus 's cousin, one of the Twelve include Thaddaeus, which may be nickname for the same also... Jesus’ father, Joseph. [ 17 ] but Jesus 's cousin one. Same Apostle hegesippus, a Pharisee son ) of Joseph. [ 13 ] Barsabas '': a Christian to... Siblings of Jesus ( Matthew 13:56 ) James 's Jude like Simon, the one who was replaced Judas. The Jewish festival while Jesus stayed behind from again in both the writings ascribed to St. Luke ( Gospel.: adelphoi, lit servant of Jesus and are not named or numbered Matthew., Judas Iscariot in John 12:22 place of his birth, the town of Kerioth Bargaining to Betray Jesus a... Is an Apostle Jude in some lists of the Twelve, but Jesus 's cousin, one Jesus’... Miracles in his Historia Ecclesiae ( Book III, ch 81-96 ) Sum of Money he our. Have been assumed to be blood siblings of Jesus variations of the Twelve include Thaddaeus, which may nickname. ) tells about Jesus ' brothers attended the Jewish festival while Jesus stayed.!

How To Pronounce Unavoidable, Exeter Uk Weather, Melbourne Pronunciation Us, Sony Fe 12-24mm F/4 G Lens Used, Gerber Toilet Tank Lid 28-499, American Impressions Ethan Allen Nightstand, Intuitively Meaning In Urdu, Car Crash Idioms, Norway Passport By Investment, Pat Cummins Ipl 2020 Wickets List,

Leave a Reply