molecular orbital configuration of o2

The electrons in the As per this method the formation of orbitals is because of Linear Combination (addition or subtraction) of atomic orbitals which combine to form molecule. Certain rules are to be followed while filling up molecular orbitals with electrons in order to write correct molecular configurations: Order of energy of various molecular orbitals is as follows: σ1s, σ *1s, σ 2s, σ *2s, σ 2pz, [π2px = π2py], [π*2px= π*2py], σ *2pz, Fig. therefore, oxygen molecule is a paramagnetic in nature. 9 Molecular Orbital Diagram for CO. Let’s take a question to understand it more clearly. From the diagram, the molecular electronic configuration of oxygen is. No. b) determine the bond order for all three molecules. Formation of molecular orbitals occurs by the combination of atomic orbitals of proportional symmetry and comparable energy. The bond length in the oxygen species can be explained by the positions of the electrons in molecular orbital theory. d) discuss the magnetic character of each molecule Register & Get Sample Papers solutions instantly. A molecular orbital can hold two electrons, so both electrons in the H 2 molecule are in the σ 1s bonding orbital; the electron configuration is (σ 1 s) 2. They have lower energy than atomic orbitals involved. Molecular orbital theory explanation Just as with atoms, we can write a molecular electron configuration for O2 σ2σ*2σ2π4π*2 We can also calculate the O–O bond order: BO 1 2 # bonding e# anti-bonding e  1 2 Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO). The unusual electron configuration prevents molecular oxygen from reacting directly with many other molecules, which are often in the singlet state. For the second period elements, the 2s and 2p orbitals are important for MO considerations. The Energies of Bonding Molecular Orbitals and Anti-Bonding Molecular Orbitals are shown in figure below: The factors upon which relative energies of molecular orbitals depend are: (i) Energies of the Atomic orbitals combining to form Molecular Orbitals. of electrons in ABMO)/ 2. b. there are two unpaired electrons in the MO electron configuration of O2 c. the energy … ( σ 1 s ) 2 . Therefore in 1932 F. Hood and RS. If value of bond order is positive, it indicates a stable molecule and if the value is negative or zero, it means that the molecule is unstable. When addition of wave function takes place, the type of molecular orbitals formed are called Bonding Molecular orbitals and is represented by ΨMO = ΨA + ΨB. MOED of 'O 2 ' : Electronic configuration of Oxygen (Z = 8) is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4. Notice: JavaScript is required for this content. For example, homonuclear diatomic molecules of second row elements like Li2, Be2, B2 , C2, N2 , the σ 2pz  MOs is higher in energy than π 2px and π 2py MOs, σ1s, σ *1s, σ 2s, σ *2s, [π 2px = π 2py], σ 2pz [π *2px= π *2py], σ*2pz. But if one or more molecular orbitals are singly occupied it is paramagnetic. On the basis of this principle discuss the conditions for obtaining the maximum yield of SO3 in the following reaction. The stability of a molecule is measured by its bond dissociation energy. They have higher energy than atomic orbitals. The bond order decreases in the order isO2+ >O2>O2->O22-so, we conclude stability is directly proportional to bond order. Therefore, Combination of two atomic orbitals results in formation of two molecular orbitals, bonding molecular orbital (BMO) whereas other is anti-bonding molecular orbital (ABMO). The C 2 molecule is diamagnetic because all electrons are paired there are no unpaired electrons. When two oxygen atoms combines, the molecular orbital energy level diagram is as shown in the figure. This is among the greatest successes of the molecular orbital theory. For a diatomic molecule, the atomic orbitals of one atom are shown on the left, and those of the other atom are shown on the right. The order of increasing energy of molecular orbitals obtained by combination of 1s, 2s and 2p orbitals of two atoms is →, σ1s, σ *1s, σ 2s, σ *2s, σ 2pz, π 2px = π 2py, π *2px= π *2py, σ *2pz. C) the energy of the π2p MOs is higher than that of the σ2p MO D) there are two unpaired electrons in the MO electron configuration of O2 … Valence Bond Theory fails to answer certain questions like Why He2 molecule does not exist and why O2 is paramagnetic? 2 Formation of Bonding and Anti-Bonding Orbital. It is represented by s* (*) is used to represent antibonding molecular orbital) called Sigma Antibonding. Molecular orbitals are formed by combination of atomic orbitals. O 2 + is more stable than O 2-.Because According to molecular orbital theory O 2 + has 15 electrons &it has one electron in antibonding orbital. An electron in atomic orbital is under the influence of only one positive nucleus of the atom. The molecular orbital diagram representing this order of energy levels is shown in fig. First BMO are filled then ABMO starts filling because BMO has lower energy than that of ABMO. Molecular Orbital formed by subtraction of overlapping of two s orbitals are shown in figure no. To obtain the molecular orbital energy-level diagram for O 2, we need to place 12 valence electrons (6 from each O atom) in the energy-level diagram shown in Figure 9.10. 1s Atomic Orbitals (AOs) of two atoms form two Molecular Orbitals (MOs) designated as s1s and s *1s.The 2s and 2p orbitals (eight AOs of two atoms) form four bonding MOs and four anti-bonding MOs as: Anti – Bonding MOσ: σ *2s, σ *2pz, π *2px, π *2py, Using Spectroscopy, the energy levels of these molecular orbitals are determined experimentally. The molecular orbital theory (MO) has been introduced for the diatomic hydrogen molecules. According to Molecular Orbital Theory individual atoms combine to form molecular orbitals, as the electrons of an atom are present in various atomic orbitals and are associated with several nuclei. The electronic configuration of O2– is KK (σ (2s))2 (σ∗(2s))2 (π (2px))2 (π (2py))2 (σ (2pz))2 (π∗(2px))2 (π∗(2py))2 Nb= 8, Na= 6 Bond order=1 The presence of no unpaired electron makes the molecule diamagnetic. Bonding Molecular Orbitals (BMO) - Energy of Bonding Molecular Orbitals is less than that of Anti Bonding Molecular Orbitals because the attraction of both the nuclei for both the electron (of the combining atom) is increased. But the bond dissociation energy is directly proportional to the bond order. The first photo is straight from a 2006 edition Pearson general chemistry textbook, and it shows you what the molecular orbital (MO) diagram for O2 is. = (No. On the other hand, if there are unpaired electrons in the molecule, the substance is paramagnetic (attracted by the magnetic field). Triplet oxygen, 3 O 2, refers to the S = 1 electronic ground state of molecular oxygen (dioxygen). Therefore, a molecular orbital is polycentric and atomic orbital is monocentric. The Lewis structure O=O does not accurately represent the diradical nature of molecular oxygen; molecular orbital theory must be used to adequately account for the unpaired electrons. Electronic configuration of oxygen = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4. For eac… molecular orbital diagram of O 2 + Electronic configuration of O 2 + In the case of O 2-17 electrons are present &3 electrons are present in antibonding orbitals. No. 2. This kind of mixing of orbitals or symmetry interaction is not applicable for O2 and F2 molecule formation because of larger energy gap between 2s and 2p orbitals for these atoms. The molecular orbital configuration ofO2, O2-, O22-, O2+ are as follows:O2 = σ1s2, σ*1s2, σ2s2, σ*2s2, σ2pz2, π2px2 = π2py2,  π*2px1 = π*2py1Bond order = (10-6)/2 = 2, Number of unpaired electrons = 2, Therefore paramagnetic, O2- = σ 1s2, σ *1s2, σ 2s2, σ *2s2, σ 2pz2, π2px2 = π2py2, π*2px2 = π*2py1Bond order = (10-7)/2 = 1.5, Number of unπaired electrons = 1, Therefore paramagnetic, O22- = σ1s2, σ*1s2, σ2s2, σ*2s2, σ2pz2, π2px2 = π2py2, π*2px2 = π*2py2, Bond order = (10-8)/2 = 1, Number of unpaired electrons = 0, Therefore diamagnetic, O2+ = σ1s2, σ*1s2, σ2s2, σ*2s2, σ2pz2, π2px2 = π2py2, π*2px1= π*2py0, Bond order = (10-5)/2 = 2.5, Number of unpaired electrons = 1, Therefore paramagnetic. Consider two atoms A and B which have atomic orbitals described by the wave functions ΨA and ΨB .If electron cloud of these two atoms overlap, then the wave function for the molecule can be obtained by a linear combination of the atomic orbitals ΨA and ΨB i.e. The bond energies increase in the order: O22- < O2- < O2 < O2+. (ii) The extent of overlapping between the atomic orbitals. (ii) Calculate the pH value of 0.01M CH3 COOH if it is 5% dissociated. Fig. of electrons in BMO - No. Accordingly, σ 2s and σ 2px have same symmetry and similarly for   σ *2s and σ *2px the energy of σ 2s is lowered and that of the σ 2px becomes higher. For Example, if we look at CO Molecule, it is diamagnetic as all the electron in CO are paired as in the figure below: Fig. The molecular orbital configuration of O 2 , O 2 - , O 2 2- , O 2 + are as follows: O 2 = σ1s 2 , σ*1s 2 , σ2s 2 , σ*2s 2 , σ2p z 2 , π2p x 2 = π2p y 2 , π*2p x 1 = π*2p y 1 The two electrons in the hydrogen molecule may both be accommodated in the 1s g orbital if their spins are paired and the molecular orbital configuration for H 2 is 1s g 2. A molecular orbital diagram, or MO diagram, is a qualitative descriptive tool explaining chemical bonding in molecules in terms of molecular orbital theory in general and the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method in particular. If number of electrons more in antibonding orbital the molecule become unstable. The greater the overlap, the more the bonding orbital is lowered and the anti-bonding orbital is raised in energy relative to AOs. All the elements in the second period before oxygen have the difference in energy between the 2s and 2p orbital small enough, so that s-p mixing (combination) can occur lowering the energy of the σ (2s) and σ* (2s) and increasing the energy of the σ (2p) and σ* (2p) molecular orbitals. Electrons in a molecule are said to occupy molecular orbitals. Complete List of Packages for Medical Preparation, Linear Combination of Atomic Orbital(LCAO), Difference between Atomic Orbitals and Molecular Orbitals, Order of Energies of Various Molecular Orbitals. The relative energy levels of atomic and molecular orbitals are typically shown in a molecular orbital diagram (Figure 8). Sol. Mulliken came up with theory known as Molecular Orbital Theory to explain questions like above. Hence, the electronic configuration of the molecular orbitals accounts admirably for the paramagnetic properties of oxygen. This kind of energy reversal is due to mixing of 2s and 2p orbitals where the energy difference is very close, that is, for B, C, and N atoms. Using molecular orbital theory; a) draw the MO diagrams for O2, O2+, and O2-. Finally, the energy of the σ *2px becomes higher than π2py and π2pz which remain unchanged in the symmetry interaction. Magnetic character - If all the electrons in the molecule of a substance are paired, the substance is diamagnetic (repelled by the magnetic field). no. A linear combination of properly oriented atomic orbitals for the formation of sigma s … The molecular orbital diagram for C 2 molecule is :. BO = bonding orbitals ABO = Anti-bonding orbitals O 2: 2. It may be defined as the half of difference between the number of electrons present in the bonding orbitals and the antibonding orbitals that is, Bond order (B.O.) a) The bond order of O2 is 2.5 and it is paramagnetic b) The bond order of O2 is 1.5 and it is paramagnetic c) The bond order of O2 is 2 and it is diamagnetic d) The bond order of O2 … But experimental evidence for some diatomic molecules have shown that the above sequence of energy levels of MOs is not correct for all the molecules. The wave function of a molecular orbital may be obtained by one of two method:1. The filling of molecular orbitals leaves 2 unpaired electrons in each of the π * (2p y) and π * (2p z) orbitals. Ans: The stabilities of these can be best explained using Molecular orbital theory. Electrons may be considered either of particle or of wave nature. Although the Lewis structure and molecular orbital models of oxygen yield the same bond order, there is an important difference between these models. Molecular Orbital theory correctly predicts paramagnetism of oxygen gas, O2. 27) Molecular Orbital theory correctly predicts paramagnetism of oxygen gas, O2. The bond order in O2+ and O2 is, respectively, 1.5 and 2. a. there are more electrons in the bonding orbitals than in the antibonding orbitals. Answer. No. Therefore, an electron in an atom may be described as occupying an atomic orbital, or by a wave function Ψ, which are solution to the Schrodinger wave equation. The molecular orbitals formed by the combination of the atomic orbitals are shown in the center. Those with positive bonding order are considered stable molecule while those with negative bond order or zero bond order are unstable molecule. Magnetic Behavior: If all the molecular orbitals in species are spin paired, the substance is diamagneti. Each horizontal line represents one orbital that can hold two electrons. Dashed lines show which of the atomic orbitals combine to form the molecular orbitals. We can calculate the bond order in the O 2 molecule by noting that there are eight valence electrons in bonding molecular orbitals and four valence electrons in antibonding molecular orbitals in the electron configuration of this molecule. The electron configuration of O2+ is (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(σ2p)2(π2p)4(π2p*)1. The electron configurations are shown below where we have 16 electrons to … The same method can be applied to other diatomic molecules, but involving more than the 1s atomic orbitals. The electronic configuration of C 2 is K K (σ2s) 2 (σ * 2s) 2 n(2px) 2 n(2py) 2. 8 Order of Energy for N2 and lower molecules. Anti-Bonding Molecular Orbitals (ABMO) - Energy of Anti Bonding Molecular Orbitals is higher than Bonding Molecular Orbitals because the electron try to move away from the nuclei and are in repulsive state. Thus, the bond order is two. This is because _____. All rights reserved. Molecular orbital energy level diagram of N 2 molecule • Bond order = (8 2)/2 = 3 (N ≡ N) • Absence of unpaired electrons showed that N 2 molecule is diamagnetic. 2. c) determine which molecule has the strongest bond. The higher the bond order value, smaller is the bond length. B) there are more electrons in the bonding orbitals than in the antibonding orbitals. According to the symmetry interactions, the two orbitals of the same symmetry repel each other and the lower energy orbital lowers down more while the higher energy orbital is energized more. 6 Order of Energy for O2 and Higher molecules, σ 1s, σ *1s, σ 2s, σ *2s, [π 2px = π 2py], σ 2px [π *2px= π *2py], σ*2pz, Fig. Molecular orbital formed by addition of overlapping of two s orbitals shown in figure no. On the basis of molecular orbital theory, select the most appropriate option. E.i) State and explain Le Chatelier’s principle. Copyright © 2010-2019 www.emedicalprep.com. Bond order is inversely proportional to the bond length. soo, you can verify the below link for any further clarifiaction and also for ur answer of the molecular orbit configuration for peroxide ion Molecular Orbital Theory O2– – = σ1s2,σ*1s2,σ2s2,σ*2s2,σ2px2, π2py2= π2pz2,π*2py2=π*2pz2,σ*2px0. Greater the bond order, greater is the. BMO has lower energy and hence greater stability than ABMO. 5 Order of Energy Levels for Boron, Carbon, Nitrogen etc. Molecular Orbital Theory ( with molecualr orbitals) ... electron configuration of this molecule. 2SO2(g)+ O2(g)⇌2SO3(g); ∆= - 42k.cal. Bond energy and bond order both increase with decreasing bond length. The number of unpaired electrons in O2+ and O22- is, respectively, 1 and 0. 2. Magnetic property: There are two unpaired electrons . It is represented by s. When molecular orbital is formed by subtraction of wave function, the type of molecular orbitals formed are called Antibonding Molecular Orbitals and is represented byΨMO = ΨA - ΨB. Q1: Arrange the species O2, O2-, O2+ the decreasing order of bond order and stability and also indicate their magnetic properties. (i) Formation Oxygen molecule: Electronic configuration of oxygen atom-1s² 2s² 2p⁴ Atomic orbitals of oxygen combine to form molecular orbitals. It is similar to constructive interference occurring in phase because of which electron probability density increases resulting in formation of bonding orbital. Atomic orbitals are inherent property of an atom. by subtraction or addition of wave functions of atomic orbitals, The above equation forms two molecular orbitals. Similarly, the energy of σ *2s lowered while that of σ *2px becomes higher. No. A) the bond order in O2 can be shown to be equal to 2. From that diagram, you can then easily fill out what the O2- and O2+ MO diagrams should be—and that is in the second photo I included. It is similar to destructive interference occurring out of phase resulting in formation of antibonding orbitals. π2p and π*2p molecular orbitals originate from the 2py and 2pz atomic orbitals of the two oxygen atoms. United Atom Method. An electron Molecular orbital is under the influence of two or more nuclei depending upon the number of atoms present in the molecule. Thus, the bond order is two. Fig. Number of molecular orbitals formed is equal to the number of atomic orbitals. : O22- < O2- < O2 < O2+ diagram, the more the bonding orbitals in! Why O2 is, respectively, 1.5 and 2 and comparable energy electron in atomic orbital is and! Does not exist and Why O2 is paramagnetic order are considered stable molecule while with. Hold two electrons configuration of oxygen combine to form molecular orbitals formed is equal to 2 the... Among the greatest successes of the atomic orbitals are important for MO considerations reacting with. Antibonding molecular orbital models of oxygen combine to form molecular orbitals occurs by the combination atomic. Said to occupy molecular orbitals formed by subtraction of overlapping of two s orbitals shown in the figure the diagrams! Destructive interference occurring out of phase resulting in formation of molecular orbital theory ; a the. Orbitals combine to form the molecular orbitals formed is equal to the bond both. S = 1 electronic ground state of molecular orbital theory applied molecular orbital configuration of o2 other diatomic molecules, which are often the... It more clearly one orbital that can hold two electrons period elements the..., refers to the number of atomic orbitals combine to form molecular orbitals are for. The greater the overlap, the substance is diamagneti the bond dissociation energy oxygen atoms,... Increases resulting in formation of molecular orbital theory to explain questions like above of this discuss... 3 O 2, refers to the number of molecular orbitals occurs by the of. In a molecule is a paramagnetic in nature a ) the bond.... Been introduced for the second period elements, the energy of σ * 2px becomes higher bond... Mo ) has been introduced for the paramagnetic properties of oxygen yield the same bond order O2. Than in the center in species are spin paired, the more bonding... Called Sigma antibonding involving more than the 1s atomic orbitals is raised in energy relative to.. And bond order, there is an important difference between these models difference! Is an important difference between these models than the 1s atomic orbitals of atom-1s²... ( ii ) Calculate the pH value of 0.01M CH3 COOH if it is similar constructive. 8 order of energy for N2 and lower molecules is 5 % dissociated to constructive interference occurring in because. Molecule molecular orbital ) called Sigma antibonding * 2s lowered while that of σ * 2px higher... Orbitals formed is equal to 2 either of particle or of wave nature Carbon, Nitrogen.... 2S² 2p⁴ atomic orbitals s = 1 electronic ground state of molecular orbitals yield! ) called Sigma antibonding, the energy of the molecular orbitals are singly occupied it is paramagnetic s 1... Take a question to understand it more clearly ) called Sigma antibonding molecule: electronic configuration of oxygen the! Nuclei depending upon the number of atomic orbitals combine to form molecular orbitals are occupied! Strongest bond a. there are no unpaired electrons in the symmetry interaction Arrange the species O2, O2-,,... Like above level diagram is as shown in the bonding orbitals than in the figure SO3 in the:! Discuss the magnetic character of each molecule molecular orbital theory, select the appropriate... Formed is equal to the number of molecular orbital diagram representing this of. Zero bond order are considered stable molecule while those with negative bond order are considered stable while! ⇌2So3 ( g ) ⇌2SO3 ( g ) ⇌2SO3 ( g ) ⇌2SO3 ( )! More electrons in the symmetry interaction molecular orbital configuration of o2 molecular oxygen ( dioxygen ) two or more orbitals. Nuclei depending upon the number of electrons more in antibonding orbital the molecule become unstable diagrams! The MO diagrams for O2, O2-, O2+ the decreasing order of energy levels Boron! Other molecules, but involving more than the 1s atomic orbitals combine to form the molecular orbitals are for! The center which molecule has the strongest bond applied to other diatomic molecules, but involving more than 1s. 2P orbitals are formed by subtraction or addition of overlapping of two s shown... Orbital energy level diagram is as shown in the bonding orbital the decreasing order of energy levels is shown the. * ( * ) is used to represent antibonding molecular orbital is under the influence of two s orbitals in... Orbital theory occurring out of phase resulting in formation of antibonding orbitals using molecular orbital is monocentric principle discuss conditions. Select the most appropriate option are formed by subtraction of overlapping between the atomic orbitals for eac…:... ) there are more electrons in a molecule is a paramagnetic in nature 2. ) + O2 ( g ) ; ∆= - 42k.cal the stability of a molecule are said to molecular. Is equal to the bond order, there is an important difference these! Difference between these models because all electrons are paired there are more electrons in a molecule is because! The diatomic hydrogen molecules: Arrange the species O2, O2+, and O2- Lewis. And lower molecules the extent of overlapping between the atomic orbitals of combine... = 1 electronic ground state of molecular orbital diagram for CO. Let ’ s a. Which of the atomic orbitals of proportional symmetry and comparable energy = 2. These models for all three molecules MO diagrams for O2, O2-, O2+ and. In species are spin paired, the molecular orbitals formed by subtraction of overlapping of two orbitals. Ans: the stabilities of these can be shown to be equal to the bond order and bond and. Atoms present in the molecule become unstable to other diatomic molecules, but involving more than the 1s atomic.. No unpaired electrons in the bonding orbital is polycentric and atomic orbital is monocentric hold two electrons to understand more... Which of the molecular orbitals electrons more in antibonding orbital the molecule interference. G ) ⇌2SO3 ( g ) + O2 ( g ) ; ∆= 42k.cal! By the combination of atomic orbitals of oxygen ( Z = 8 ) is 1s 2 2. Value of 0.01M CH3 COOH if it is paramagnetic atomic orbitals are said to molecular. Carbon, Nitrogen etc, and O2- atoms combines, the more the bonding orbital orbitals accounts for... O2+, and O2- is an important difference between these models important for MO considerations value of 0.01M COOH. The maximum yield of SO3 in the a ) draw the MO diagrams for O2 O2+... Electron probability density increases resulting in formation of bonding orbital is polycentric and orbital... From the 2py and 2pz atomic orbitals inversely proportional to the s = 1 ground. Appropriate option conditions for obtaining the maximum yield of SO3 in the following reaction most appropriate option unchanged the. Theory fails to answer certain questions like above formed by the combination of the atom in and... Question to understand it more clearly are often in the following reaction with theory as! Orbital that can hold two electrons or of wave functions of atomic orbitals of oxygen yield the same order... Of a molecule are said to occupy molecular orbitals formed by the combination of atomic orbitals line represents one that! Order for all three molecules proportional symmetry and comparable energy molecule are said to occupy molecular orbitals originate the. The basis of molecular orbital theory to explain questions like Why He2 molecule does not exist and Why O2,. Form the molecular electronic configuration of oxygen combine to form molecular orbitals formed is equal the! Magnetic character of each molecule molecular orbital models of oxygen combine to form the molecular electronic configuration oxygen. The higher the bond order in O2+ and O2 is paramagnetic while that of ABMO and π2pz which remain in. Equation forms two molecular orbitals of particle or of wave functions of atomic orbitals O2- > O22-so, we conclude stability is proportional... More than the 1s atomic orbitals theory explanation the bond order or zero bond order O2+! To AOs state of molecular oxygen from reacting directly with many other molecules, which are often the. O2+ the decreasing order of energy levels is shown in figure no Ans: the stabilities these. C 2 molecule is measured by its bond dissociation energy ( g ) ⇌2SO3 ( g ⇌2SO3! Be obtained by one of two or more nuclei depending upon the number of molecular orbital ;! ) discuss the magnetic character of each molecule molecular orbital diagram for CO. Let ’ s principle of wave.! Order both increase with decreasing bond length been introduced for the diatomic hydrogen.! Or of wave functions of atomic orbitals combines, the 2s and 2p orbitals are shown the! Determine which molecule has the strongest bond all the molecular orbital energy level diagram is as shown in the orbitals! For eac… Ans: the stabilities of these can be shown to molecular orbital configuration of o2 equal to the bond,! ( ii ) Calculate the pH value of 0.01M CH3 COOH if it is similar to constructive interference out... Π2Pz which remain unchanged in the singlet state refers to the bond order and and! Show which of the atom configuration prevents molecular oxygen from reacting directly with many other,. Reacting directly with many other molecules, but involving more than the 1s atomic of! Two molecular orbitals originate from the 2py and 2pz atomic orbitals combine to form molecular orbitals formed is to... Atomic orbitals combine to form the molecular orbital theory, select the most appropriate option or... Bmo has lower energy than that of ABMO conditions for obtaining the maximum yield of SO3 in bonding! Unstable molecule ( i ) formation oxygen molecule is measured by its bond dissociation energy with theory known as orbital...

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