Most important: Do not allow your pet to roam unsupervised. Antifreeze, which often contains ethylene glycol (EG), can be extremely dangerous to dogs and cats. These causes of kidney failure are distinguished from that caused by ethylene glycol by laboratory tests, abdominal ultrasound and kidney biopsy. Acidosis (acidic blood) can also be detected through the biochemistry profile. Ethylene glycol → glycoaldehyde → glycolate → oxalate. If that’s the case, then it means that the body has absorbed too much ethylene glycol for direct treatment to be effective. Toxic metabolites of EG cause severe metabolic acidosis and renal tubular epithelial damage. Ethylene glycol itself is not toxic, but it is metabolized in the animal’s body to several extremely toxic chemicals that are responsible for its potentially lethal effects. Ethylene glycol (EG) toxicity results from its metabolism to glycolic acid and other toxic metabolites. It is categorized by the FDA as a GRAS (generally recognized as safe) substance. Ethylene glycol poisoning can be fatal if not treated soon after ingestion (within 4 to 8 hours). Treatment of acute kidney failure depends on the underlying cause. Clinicopathologic findings were retrospectively evaluated in 26 cats and 24 dogs with ethylene glycol intoxication. • It is the most toxic of similarly used alcohols (ethyl alcohol, butylene glycol and propylene glycol). Characteristic alterations in the hemogram and serum chemical profile included neutrophilia, lymphopenia, azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, hyperglycemia, and decreased whole blood bicarbonate. Both drugs must be used within 6 to 8 hours after ingestion of ethylene glycol, and drug choice is determined by drug availability. Some animals with severe kidney failure due to ethylene glycol poisoning die despite dialysis support. Aldehydes cause central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. That is roughly 16 mL of 50% ethylene glycol for an 80 kg adult and 4 mL for a 20 kg child. Your veterinarian may recommend any of the following treatments for dogs with ethylene glycol poisoning: Â©Copyright 1999 - 2020. 30 min after ingestion. Venous blood gas analysis to identify severe acidosis (low blood pH) characteristic of early ethylene glycol poisoning. Animals that have ingested garbage, especially garbage that contains moldy food, may shake and have muscle tremors, which helps to distinguish them from animals poisoned with ethylene glycol. Oxalate crystal formation → renal tubular damage. How do you protect your dog from antifreeze poisoning in winter months? Here are the final symptoms of the condition: (Picture Credit: JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images). Food Hazards. Unfortunately, many owners do not realize that their pet has consumed ethylene glycol and don’t become aware of the problem until the pet shows non-specific symptoms of kidney failure like loss of appetite, lethargy and vomiting two to three days later. Common clinical signs were ataxia, depression, vomiting, and hypothermia. Twenty percent ethanol produces nervous system signs of “drunkenness” but can be used both in dogs and cats. Ethylene glycol itself is not toxic, but it is metabolized in the animal’s body to several extremely toxic chemicals that are responsible for its potentially lethal effects. However, these tests are not specific for ethylene glycol toxicity, and by the time these blood tests show evidence of kidney failure, the prognosis is grave to poor (since it is too late to treat with the antidote). Prevent access of pets to areas where ethylene glycol-containing products may be stored or spilled like the garage or driveway. The most common cause of ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs is ingestion of antifreeze, though ethylene glycol is present in several other substances, including many paints, stains, inks, brake fluid, motor oils, and more. When these substances are left out where dogs can get them or when spills aren’t cleaned up, dogs may be attracted to the sweet taste. This treatment will focus on correcting fluid imbalances and electrolytes, as well as reducing the effects of acidosis. A calculation called the “osmolal gap,” if your veterinarian suspects recent ethylene glycol poisoning. Whereas all animal species are susceptible, to ethylene glycol toxicity, cats … Since it has a wider margin of safety as compared to its chemical cousin, ethylene glycol, it is commonly used to absorb extra water and maintain moisture in certain medicines, cosmetics, or dog and human food products. Propylene Glycol Toxicosis. EG intoxication is the second most common cause of fatal poisoning in animals according to the American Association of Poison Control Centers. The IHC Group. Ethylene glycol (EG) poisoning is common in dogs and cats 1 – 4 and often results in death if it is not diagnosed and treated promptly. These procedures require referral to a veterinary specialist. How is ethanol used in the treatment of ethylene glycol toxicity? It’s especially important in winter months to watch for the symptoms of ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs. It’s critical to begin treatment within the first four hours of ingestion in … If you see any of the following first stage signs, it’s important that you provide immediate medical attention for your dog: The symptoms of the second stage of ethylene glycol toxicity can be deceptive, as a dog’s condition may seem to improve during this time, even though the situation is becoming more dire. Pets that are allowed to roam unsupervised are more likely to encounter a source of ethylene glycol and consume it. Propylene glycol is a common ingredient in antifreeze, lubricants, and products of plasticity. The minimum lethal dose for dogs averages five milliliters per kilogram of body weight. Acute pancreatitis. Ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs is a life-threatening condition. Your veterinarian may recommend you give your pet hydrogen peroxide by mouth to induce vomiting before you transport the animal to the hospital. The goal of this treatment is to eliminate ethylene glycol from the body before it can cause significant damage. Deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney result in a very bright (white on the ultrasound monitor) appearance within hours, Kidney biopsy to confirm ethylene glycol poisoning if kidney failure is present, Induction of vomiting by oral administration of hydrogen peroxide if possible before transport of the pet to the veterinary hospital, Hospitalization of the pet usually is necessary, Induction of vomiting (if not successful before arrival) and gastric lavage (pumping of the stomach) to remove the poison before it can be broken down to its toxic end-products, Administration of activated charcoal to bind ethylene glycol within the digestive tract, Intravenous fluid administration to correct dehydration, Treatment with sodium bicarbonate if acidosis is severe, Specific drugs such as 20 percent ethyl alcohol or 4-methylpyrazole (Antizol®) that inhibit the breakdown of ethylene glycol to its toxic end-products if the pet is seen within several hours after ingestion of ethylene glycol, Drugs to treat kidney failure and encourage urine production such as the diuretic furosemide and blood vessel-dilating drug dopamine. Despite its bright color, antifreeze may be hard to spot when it gets covered in snow or slush. The accumulation of glycolate and the elimination kinetics of EG and its metabolites are not well understood, so studies with male Sprague-Dawley rats and mixed breed dogs have been carried out. Ethylene glycol has a sweet taste and dogs will consume it readily. Fomepizole is expensive but life-saving when administered to dogs within the first 8-12 hours of ingestion. Blood transfusions and intravenous nutritional support, called “total parenteral nutrition,” may be required from animals that survive yet have prolonged hospitalization times. Ethylene glycol has been shown to be toxic to humans and is also toxic to domestic pets such as cats and dogs. This may result from other types of toxins, trauma and infection. Diagnostic test are needed to recognize ethylene glycol toxicosis, including: Treatment for ethylene glycol toxicosis in dogs includes one or more of the following: Remove your dog from the source of ethylene glycol immediately. Best Answer. The following second stage symptoms can appear within twelve to 24 hours of consuming ethylene glycol: The symptoms of the third stage of ethylene glycol toxicity occur within 36 to 72 hours after consuming the substance. Last update: Oct 2, 2020 1 answer. monitoring_string = "c1299fe10ba49eb54f197dd4f735fcdc". Do you have any tips for other pet parents? In cats, ingestion of a diet containing 6%–12% PG can result in Heinz body formation and decreased RBC survival. Induction of vomiting is indicated if your pet is seen within a few hours of ethylene glycol ingestion. This treatment is adjunctive only. There is no known exposure to drugs, medications, toxins, compost, garbage, etc. The symptoms of ethylene glycol poisoning, however, are not specific for this disorder. An ultrasound examination and ultrasound-guided kidney biopsy for diagnosis if the pet is presented in kidney failure. Dogs may be attracted to ethylene glycol by its sweet taste. The ultrasound examination typically shows very bright kidneys with ethylene glycol poisoning. In many instances, owners are not aware their pets have consumed ethylene glycol until it is too late and severe kidney failure has developed. An chemical test to detect ethylene glycol in the blood. Intravenous fluids may be given to decrease the risk of dehydration and promote urination, which can help eliminate the substance from the body. Amoroso L, Cocumelli C(1), Bruni G, Brozzi A, Tancredi F, Grifoni G, Mastromattei A, Meoli R, Di Guardo G, Eleni C. Author information: (1)Istituto Zoopro lattico Sperimentale del Lazio e della Toscana "M. Aleandri", Rome, Italy. Ethylene glycol damages doggie kidneys by acting as a magnet for calcium. These include: Therapy is often successful if the dog is seen by the veterinarian within a few hours after ingestion of ethylene glycol and before kidney damage has occurred. Garbage ingestion. Ethylene glycol (EG) is a clear, odorless compound that, because of its palatability, is occasionally ingested by both dogs and cats, with severe and potentially fatal consequences. Propylene glycol is not as toxic as another common antifreeze ingredient known as ethylene glycol; however, it is still poisonous and dogs require medical treatment if ingested. Overview of Ethylene Glycol Toxicity. Let us know in the comments below! Activated charcoal is administered via a stomach tube or by syringe to the animal to prevent further absorption of ethylene glycol from the digestive tract. Data from animal studies have been examined from the standpoint of dose-response relationships and the sensitivity of various animal species, including man, to the effects of this chemical. Such pets never develop kidney failure and are discharged from the hospital after a few days of treatment and observation. Call your veterinarian immediately if you suspect your dog to have consumed ethylene glycol. As … Ethylene glycol toxicosis is a type of poisoning that occurs in dogs after ingestion of antifreeze or other fluids containing the ingredient ethylene glycol. Symptoms of the first stage of ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs appear within 30 minutes of ingestion. > “In both dogs and cats, toxic doses of ethylene glycol cause CNS depression followed by acute kidney injury and metabolic acidosis,” Brutlag says. Timecourse Ingestion of ethylene glycol (EG) is a frequently encountered toxicity in dogs and cats. How is 4-methylpyrazole used in the treatment of ethylene glycol toxicity? These signs include vomiting, ataxia/drunken gait, disorientation, and increased thirst and urination. 5 The mortality rate in dogs is reported to range from 59% to 70% 1, 5 and is thought to be even higher in cats. Dogtime is a property of TotallyHer Media, LLC, an Evolve Media, LLC company. A complete medical history and physical examination to determine if exposure to ethylene glycol or other toxins has occurred. All Rights Reserved, Complete medical history and physical examination, Ethylene glycol test should be performed as soon after ingestion as possible, Urinalysis to evaluate for characteristic calcium oxalate crystals (one of the metabolic end-products of ethylene glycol breakdown), casts, and other evidence of kidney damage, Blood gas analysis to evaluate for the presence of severe acidosis, Serum biochemistry tests to evaluate for electrolyte disturbances (including low blood calcium) and abnormally high kidney function tests (blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, serum phosphorus), Abdominal ultrasound examination to evaluate kidney size and appearance. Treatment for ethylene glycol poisoning includes the antidote fomepizole (also known as 4-MP) or ethanol. If kidney failure already is present (based on observation of high kidney function test results and lack of urine production) the prognosis for recovery is very poor. Unfortunately, in many cases the owner is not aware that the pet has consumed ethylene glycol and first recognizes the non-specific signs of severe acute kidney failure such as lethargy, loss of appetite, vomiting. It’s more common in fall and winter months when antifreeze is used in cars, as it’s sometimes left out, spills on the ground, or leaks from cars. Keep containers of antifreeze and air-conditioning coolant tightly closed and out of reach of pets. Ethylene glycol toxicosis is a type of poisoning that occurs in dogs after ingestion of antifreeze or other fluids containing the ingredient ethylene glycol. EG is rapidly absorbed from the GI tract; in dogs, blood concentrations of EG peak within 3 hr of ingestion. Either 20 percent ethanol (ethyl alcohol) or 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP or Antizol®) is used to prevent the breakdown of ethylene glycol to its toxic end-products. Diagnostic tests are needed to recognize ethylene glycol toxicosis. Common … He has also been trembling. Sources of ethylene glycol include automotive antifreeze (radiator coolant, which typically contains 95% ethylene glycol), windshield deicing agents, motor oils, hydraulic brake fluid, developing solutions for photography, paints, solvents, etc. Ethylene glycol is the ingredient found in most antifreeze products, usually at a concentration of 95-97%. Treatment is often futile after severe kidney failure has developed. There are 15 ml in a tablespoon, so 2 tablespoons (30ml) could be lethal for a 15-pound dog, and less than one-half of a tablespoon is lethal to a 10-pound cat. All animals are susceptible to ethylene glycol (EG) toxicity, but it is most common in dogs and cats. For both propylene glycol and ethylene glycol, signs of toxicity are seen within 1-6 hours. Why can't it be used in cats? The minimum lethal dose of ethylene glycol is 4-6 ml/kg body weight in dogs.” According to Pet Poison Helpline, common signs … 2 Ethylene glycol is most commonly found in automotive antifreeze and is also used as a precursor to industrial polymers. Ingestion of sufficient quantities of avocado fruit is most likely to cause myocardial necrosis in which of the following species? Use antifreeze products that do not contain ethylene glycol like Prestone LowTox® or Sierra®. ASPCA pet poison hotline at (888) 426-4435, cause of ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs, Dehydration (urination continues but thirst and drinking stop), Decreased urination or no urination at all. Treatment with sodium bicarbonate may be required if the pet has severe acidosis (low blood pH). 4-MP does not produce “drunkenness,” but it cannot be used in cats. ANSWERS. Unfortunately, these drugs are not often effective once severe kidney failure has developed and more than 80 percent of pets with kidney shutdown due to ethylene glycol poisoning die despite diligent medical treatment. Toxicity to pets. Treatment for ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs may not require hospitalization if it begins within five hours of ingestion. Consumption of the fruit, seed, stem, or leaves of avocados can cause toxicity in animals. While antifreeze is the most common substance that causes the condition, ethylene glycol can also be found in windshield de-icers, brake fluid, motor oils, paints, wood stains, inks, printer cartridges, and more. If you see the signs of the condition in your dog, call the ASPCA pet poison hotline at (888) 426-4435 or consult an emergency veterinarian immediately so they can begin treatment. The symptoms of ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs come in three stages that get progressively worse the longer an affected dog goes without treatment. Signs of Antifreeze toxicosis in dogs may include: Dogs may act as if they are intoxicated. If treated promptly and appropriately, pets that have consumed ethylene glycol will not develop kidney failure and have a good chance of survival. I think I would argue for 4MP but with the following considerations – Definitive treatment should be started as soon as possible after consumption of ethylene glycol (within a few hours). Gastric lavage (pumping the stomach) also is indicated if your pet is seen within a few hours of ethylene glycol ingestion. The oral LD 50 of PG in dogs is ~9 mL/kg. Excreted via kidneys. Treatment is difficult and hospitalization may extend for weeks. These signs develop within 30 minutes to 12 hours after ingestion of ethylene glycol depending on the amount ingested. “Renal damage is thought to be secondary to calcium oxalate deposition, and crystalluria is a consistent finding in ethylene glycol poisoning. Clean up spills immediately and thoroughly. A high osmolal gap raises suspicion that a large amount of ethylene glycol metabolites are present in the blood. Its concentration in automotive radiator fluid is high (95%), a source to which pets (dogs and cats) have easy access. Examples of these diseases include: Veterinary care should include diagnostic tests and subsequent treatment recommendations. Many animals will voluntarily drink ethylene glycol if antifreeze is spilled or leaks onto garage floors or driveways. Here’s what you should know about the symptoms, causes, and treatments for ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs. (Picture Credit: Kunal Patil/Hindustan Times via Getty Images). LD50 2-6 mg/kg (3-5 ml/kg). Ethylene Glycol toxicity . Transport your pet to your veterinarian immediately. Max is a 3 year old, castrated male Pit Bull mix that presented to Iowa Veterinary Specialties due to loss of balance and coordination, walking in circles, and urinating while walking. As little as half a teaspoon per pound of a dog’s body weight can result in fatality. EG is found in antifreeze (95% solution), windshield de-icing agents, and some industrial solvents (detergents, photographic developing solutions, brake fluid, motor oil, paints, wood stains, and polishes). Serum biochemistry tests also help identify electrolyte disturbances, like abnormal blood sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations, and help evaluate other organ systems, for example liver function and pancreas function, which will help your veterinarian eliminate other diagnostic possibilities. Urinalysis to evaluate for dilute urine, casts, and calcium oxalate crystals, which appear in the urine within 3 to 5 hours of ethylene glycol ingestion. Ethylene glycol is metabolized similarly to ETHANOL thus it is not surprising that animals show ataxia & CNs depression approx. Abnormal kidney function tests, like high blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum phosphorus, will be observed if acute kidney failure has developed between 12 and 72 hours after ingestion of ethylene glycol. It may take weeks of treatment before kidney function returns to normal. Propylene glycol poisoning in dogs is caused by ingesting propylene glycol. Affiliate Disclosure: Evolve Media LLC, and its owned and operated websites may receive a small commission from the proceeds of any product(s) sold through affiliate and direct partner links. Activated charcoal binds ethylene glycol in the stomach and allows it to pass through the digestive tract to be eliminated in the stool. This treatment is very expensive and is only available at selected specialty referral hospitals. Phosphorus binding drugs such as aluminum hydroxide may be given to bind phosphorus in the digestive tract. Severe gastroenteritis or intestinal tract obstruction. Intravenous fluids often are continued 24 to 48 hours after treatment with 4-MP or 20 percent ethanol has been completed. The active ingredient in antifreeze is a substance called ethylene glycol. Peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis are available for animals that have developed severe kidney failure and are not producing urine despite intravenous fluid, furosemide and dopamine administration. Fluids are administered intravenously to correct dehydration resulting from vomiting and to help prevent damage to the kidneys. Induced vomiting eliminates poison that had not yet been absorbed from the stomach. Cases of ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs and cats have been regularly reported in the United States (Mueller, 1982; Rowland, 1987; Adams et al., 1991; Connally et al., 1996; Khan et al., 1999). Thus a little more than three tablespoons (or 45 milliliters) could be lethal for a 22 pound (10 kg) dog. Dog was treated with 7% IV ethanol and did fine. Treatment at that point aims at reducing symptoms. Ethylene glycol has a very narrow margin of safety – which means only a tiny amount can result in severe poisoning. The test is only accurate if performed within 6 to 12 hours of ingestion. Failure to identify calcium oxalate crystals in the urine does not rule out the possibility of ethylene glycol poisoning because crystal formation may cease within a few days of poisoning. but he is free to roam three acres … A cathartic may be given with the activated charcoal to speed its movement through the digestive tract. This is a serious condition, and dogs only need to consume about a half a teaspoon of ethylene glycol per pound of body weight for it to be fatal. Ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs, or antifreeze poisoning, happens when dogs consume the odorless, sweet-tasting ingredient ethylene glycol, commonly found antifreeze. Acute kidney failure. Approximately 50% of ingested EG is excreted unchanged by the kidneys; however, a series of oxidation reactions in the liver and kidneys metabolize the remaining EG. Although less toxic than EG, ingestion of propylene glycol (PG) may be associated with a toxic syndrome similar to the acute phase of EG toxicosis. Ethylene glycol poisoning is common because antifreeze is widely used, it has a sweet taste and small lethal dose (only 3 to 4 teaspoons in dogs, 1 to 2 teaspoons in cats), and it … These conditions can cause vomiting, lethargy, and progressive deterioration of the pet. More than 80 percent of pets with severe acute kidney failure due to ethylene glycol poisoning die despite intensive treatment. A biopsy is recommended to confirm the diagnosis of acute kidney failure due to ethylene glycol poisoning because of the extensive treatment required and the poor prognosis. These 95% commercial antifreeze preparations are diluted ~50% with water when used in vehicle cooling systems. Without a doubt untreated ethylene glycol intoxication will kill a dog. The available information on the acute and subchronic toxicity of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether is reviewed. Ethylene glycol toxicity: a retrospective pathological study in cats. Your veterinarian may recommend you induce vomiting in your pet by oral administration of hydrogen peroxide. Serum biochemistry tests to evaluate for low blood calcium concentration (hypocalcemia) that may occur soon after ethylene glycol ingestion. Medication may be given to increase urine production. Potential sources of ethylene glycol in the environment include antifreeze (the most common source of ethylene glycol poisoning), air-conditioning coolants, brake fluid, heat exchange fluids from so… Airport Animal Emergency CenterIndianapolis, IN USAEthylen glycol test (Kacey Diagnostics) was positive. It is a colorless, odorless, and sweet-tasting solution. Potential sources of ethylene glycol in the environment include antifreeze (the most common source of ethylene glycol poisoning), air-conditioning coolants, brake fluid, heat exchange fluids from solar collectors, and fluids used in color film processing. Ethylene glycol toxicity in a dog. ADDITIONAL CONTENT Test your knowledge. Ethylene glycol poisoning symptoms in the nervous system and severe kidney failure with almost complete cessation of urine output. Bicarbonate may be given to reduce metabolic acidosis, a condition where toxins cause the body’s pH level to fall too low. Other diseases present symptoms similar to those observed in ethylene glycol toxicity. https://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/urinary/c_dg_antifreeze_poisoning Previous Question Is there a recall on Milo's Kitchen dog treats? Thiamine (vitamin B1) may be administered to aid in the conversion of the toxic by-products to non-toxic metabolites. Without treatment, permanent organ damage or death may occur. Antifreeze products containing propylene glycol cause signs of drunkenness but are not fatal unless very large quantities are consumed, in which case death is the result of alcohol poisoning. Peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis is necessary if severe kidney failure and shutdown of urine production are present. If more time has elapsed since ingestion, toxins in the body may build up and cause kidney failure. The symptoms of ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs come in three stages that get progressively worse the longer an affected dog goes without treatment. Treatment requires 2 to 3 days. Max has no prior history of seizures to the owners’ knowledge, but they have owned him for only three months. Toxicity. © 2020 All rights reserved. Most intoxications are associated with ingestion of antifreeze, which is typically 95% EG. I have treated ethylene glycol intoxication with both 4MP and vodka and hands down 4MP is the way to go from the management standpoint. Dialysis may also be needed to filter waste from the blood. It is an extremely dangerous toxin and the lethal dose for dogs is 2-3 ml/lb, and for cats it is 0.64 ml/lb. Dogs that roam outside unsupervised are more likely to encounter ethylene glycol in antifreeze which has been disposed of improperly. Antifreeze spills should be washed away with large amounts of water. Call your veterinarian immediately if your pet has consumed ethylene glycol. Inflammation of the pancreas also causes vomiting, severe lethargy and, rarely, nervous system symptoms. A toxic dose requiring medical treatment varies but is considered more than 0.1 mL per kg body weight (mL/kg) of pure substance. Metabolites cytotoxic to renal tubular cells, also contribute to metabolic acidosis.