bronze birch borer range

Bronze birch borer larvae infest trees of all sizes (Barter 1957) and have been observed to colonize branches as small as one cm in diameter (Slingerland 1906). Beetles are 7–12 mm long, with females being slightly larger than males (Barter 1957). Perhaps the most ecologically and economically important Agrilus species endemic to North America is bronze birch borer (A. anxius Gory), a specialist wood-borer of birch (Betula spp.) No serious pests. The extensive dieback and mortality of ornamental birch led to interest in identifying and developing birch trees resistant to bronze birch borer (Kozel and Smith 1976, Santamour and Clausen 1979, Dirr 1981, Santamour 1982, Cheng et al. 1973; Petrice and Haack 2006; Herms et al. Bronze birch borers are a type of grub that can kill roots, branches, and entire trees. Anulewicz P.A. Under this latter scenario, widespread stress dramatically increases the availability of suitable hosts and populations of bronze birch borer increase to outbreak densities, which then allows high numbers of colonizing beetles to overwhelm defenses of even healthy trees. 2011, Økland et al. C.P.-A. 1.2. Amenity plantings have extended the distribution of birch in North America, for which we report an updated map. R.S. Fuester 2012). However, interactions between birch species and bronze birch borer may be increasingly mediated by anthropogenic forces. 2012). Agric. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue of stems and branches, which can girdle and kill trees. However, monarch birch subsequently was found to be much more susceptible to bronze birch borer than North American birch species (Nielsen et al. Damage to susceptible species of birch trees can be severe, often deadly. Agric. This hypothesis was based on the presumption that river birch and monarch birch, which both lack rhododendrol, were resistant to bronze birch borer, whereas more susceptible species contained this compound. Økland Nor are we aware of any evidence that natural enemies can protect highly susceptible host species such as European white birch when planted in North America. 2004, Mattson et al. The high susceptibility of Eurasian birch species and climatic similarities of North America and Eurasia where Betula spp. Bronze birch borer is endemic to the boreal and northern hardwood forests of North America. 1991, Nielsen et al. of Agriculture, Forest Service, NE For. Rom The range of bronze birch borer historically overlapped with the natural distribution of its evolutionary hosts: paper birch (B. papyrifera Marshall), sweet birch (B. lenta L.), yellow birch (B. alleghaniensis Britton), gray birch (B. populifolia Marshall), and water birch (B. occidentalis Hook.) However, in more resistant North American species (Nielsen et al. U.S. Dep. 2011). Accurate characterization of degree of resistance of some birch species to bronze birch borer has been muddled by conflicting reports and taxonomic inaccuracies (Santamour 1999). Between about 1930 and 1950, many gray birch trees, along with paper birch and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), were affected and killed by birch dieback disease. The high susceptibility of Eurasian birch species and climatic similarities of North America and Eurasia create high risk of widespread birch mortality in Eurasia if the borer was inadvertently introduced. D. Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. ), European white birch, Himalayan birch (B. utilis variety jacquemontii D. Don), monarch birch (B. maximowicziana Regel), and Szechuan white birch (B. szechuanica Jansson) (Dirr 2009, EPPO 2011, Nielsen et al. They live for 23 days as adults and are strong fliers, this means they can spread quickly. K. Sutherland T.M. Randell J.P. Periodic outbreaks of this borer have led to widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.) S.A. Publication 1861/E. (Santamour and McArdle 1989), a species indigenous to Japan, but later was identified as a cultivar of gray birch based on chemotaxonomic evidence (Santamour and Lundgren 1997). Haack Bronze Birch Borer is a more serious pest because it kills trunks, causing the death of most or all of the tree. Thompson Emergence may begin earlier or later at more southern and northern extremes of its distribution, respectively. Your website states that effective chemical control can be made against Bronze Birch borers. T.W. The four wood boring insects mentioned below attack a wide range of trees. Determination of larval instars of the bronze birch borer. R. The bronze birch borer occurs throughout the range of birches in Canada from Newfoundland to British Columbia but is most common in the southern portion of the provinces. M. D.G. Gould Known hosts: all species of birch. P. 2011), demonstrating that the absence of rhododendrol is not a reliable indicator of bronze birch borer resistance. Sorsa Why: The NPPO of Norway recently suggested that Agrilus anxius (Coleoptera: Buprestidae – bronze birch borer) could usefully be added to the EPPO Alert List.A. Several insecticides, including systemic products (e.g., azadirachtin, dimethoate, emamectin benzoate, dicrotophos, dinotefuran, imidacloprid) and prophylactic bark sprays (e.g., bendiocarb, bifenthrin, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, lindane, permethrin), have been shown to control Agrilus species to varying degrees (Appleby et al. Payton The bronze birch borer is the most threatening pest of ornamental birch, especially white-barked varieties and trees under stress. However, Agrilus betulanigrae MacRae, which is morphologically very similar to bronze birch borer, has been observed to colonize dead branches of river birch in Missouri (MacRae 2003). Adults must feed on foliage to achieve reproductive maturity (Barter 1957, Akers and Nielsen 1990), and in natural and laboratory conditions, have been observed to feed on several species including birch, willow (Salix), and poplar for 7–25 d, depending on species (Akers and Nielsen 1990). Although bronze birch borer has been referred to as a cambial borer, Carlson and Knight (1969) consider this terminology to be technically incorrect, as the single-cell cambial layer is much too thin to be nutritionally significant. It therefore prefers trees in urban areas, sparse stands or harvest areas. Emergence is relatively synchronized, occurring over a period of 10–12 wk and peaking 2–4 wk after first emergence (Fig. Velling Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a specialist wood-borer endemic to North America, is prone to periodic outbreaks that have caused widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.) G.H. North American species share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer and are much more resistant than Eurasian species, which are evolutionarily naïve. 1991). Native to North America, the bronze birch borer is a major pest of all species of birch. Department of Agriculture, St. Paul, MN. Burnham R.L. McNiel Because mean temperatures are projected to increase globally and rainfall patterns also are predicted to change, resulting in reduced rainfall in some regions (IPCC 2007), global climate change has been predicted to affect the distribution of birch species (Pastor and Post 1988, Overpeck et al. Mettler 2011). Reports of bronze birch borer (A. anxius) in North America, Previously published descriptions of the distribution of bronze birch borer have been derived from a combination of primary and secondary sources (Slingerland 1906, Balch and Prebble 1940, Carlson and Knight 1969, Bright 1987, EPPO 2011). 1991, Nielsen et al. 1951, Barter 1957, Houston 1987). Hanover The adult is a dull metallic bronze in color and about 1/2" long. For example, in a 20-yr common garden study in Ohio, bronze birch borer colonization caused complete mortality of Eurasian species (European white birch, downy birch, monarch birch, and Szechuan white birch). 2011). During late summer or early fall, pupal cells are constructed by fourth instars in the outer xylem just interior to the cambial layer (Barter 1957, Loerch and Cameron 1984). 2011, Økland et al. In its native range of North America, the beetle is not a problem under normal conditions, but if it was to arrive in the UK European birch trees are much more susceptible as they have not evolved with the pest. Does Fertilome Tree and Shrub Systemic Insect Drench kill the Bronze Birch Borer? M. D.G. 1991, Nielsen et al. Between about 1930 and 1950, many gray birch trees, along with paper birch and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), were affected and killed by birch dieback disease. Ylioja 1993). The 3/4-inch larva is ivory with a light brown head that is slightly tucked into the first thoracic segment. 1999, Iverson and Prasad 2001). 2011). Bronze birch borer is not known to be present outside its native range in North America. S.J. Forest Service. D.A. (2012) have proposed that they are more appropriately termed terminal processes, as they are not truly homologous with urogomphi. What is the bronze birch borer? It is also recommended that dead or dying branches be cut out and incinerated and even that dead trees be destroyed before the emergence of the adults in the spring to limit the spread of the insect. Host plant resistance has been recognized as an ideal management tool for insect pests of trees (Hanover 1975, Nielsen 1989) and has been recognized specifically as an effective strategy for managing bronze birch borer in urban forests and ornamental landscapes (Herms 2002a, 2003). J. S. Auclair Exotic pests pose a significant threat to urban trees (e.g. Adults are active from June to August in Trees often decline over several years, although death can occur more rapidly when trees are overwhelmed by large numbers of beetles (Barter 1957). They deposit their eggs in bark crevices, preferring unshaded parts of the trees. Infested trees typically possess at least one of the following signs or symptoms: distinctively D-shaped adult emergence holes (3–5 mm wide), frass-filled larval galleries at the phloem-xylem interface just under the bark, and serpentine ridges (“welts”) visible externally on the trunk and branches caused by growth of wound periderm (callus tissue) over galleries (Anderson 1944, Barter 1957). Pajares The impact these parasitoids may have on field populations of bronze birch borer remains unknown. R.A. 2011, Økland et al. This tree has an attractive pendulous habit. Planting North American birch species that are resistant to bronze birch borer (Nielsen et al. J. Miller Immature larvae spend their first winter in a gallery constructed deep into the wood and, the following spring, resume their development closer to the surface. Hale Siegert Adult beetles begin to emerge from late May to early June in central Minnesota (including the Twin Cities). Birch species are physiologically sensitive to environmental stressors such as drought (Ranney et al. T.C. Systemic insecticides target larvae feeding under the bark and adults feeding on foliage, and depending on the label, are applied as soil drenches, soil injections, trunk injections, or basal trunk sprays. 11 Photograph: David G. Nielsen, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org How to identify bronze birch borer and twolined chestnut borer Adults 1/4 to 1/2 inch long, slender, dark colored beetles. Zhao Is Fertilome Tree and Shrub Systemic Insect Drench not for Bronze Birch Borers? S.L. There are conflicting descriptions of the pattern of colonization of birch by bronze birch borer. Meng Therefore, a positive feedback loop involving reduced growth and increased female reproduction may progressively increase tree susceptibility to bronze birch borer (Herms and Mattson 1991). W.A. wide host range of trees and shrubs, but prefers maple, apple, and poplar. Saranpaa 1951, Barter 1957, Houston 1987, Jones et al. 1997). Haggman Taylor J. Wawrzynski The primary natural enemies of bronze birch borer include woodpeckers and diverse egg and larval parasitoid species (Nash et al. Previously, it was hypothesized that rhododendrol played a key role in birch resistance to bronze birch borer, putatively functioning as an oviposition stimulant in the inner bark of susceptible birch species (Santamour 1990, 1999, Santamour and Lundgren 1997). Due to the threat posed by the bronze birch borer… G. Roininen 2007, Dirr 2009), have been planted as ornamental and shade trees throughout much of the United States (Table 1). Purdue extension E-50-W. Purdue University, Crown deterioration and reduced growth associated with excessive seed production by birch, Saproxylic insect ecology and the sustainable management of forests, U.S. Dep. Rep. NE-126, [MN DNR] Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Perspectives for an etiology of stand-level dieback, A natural dieback theory, cohort senescence as an alternative to the decline disease theory, Biochemistry, physiology, and ecology of paper birch defenses to bronze birch borer and their responses to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, Inter- and intra-specific variation in stem phloem phenolics of paper birch (, Phenological correlations between flowering plants and activity of urban landscape pests in Kentucky, Studies on extensive dying, regeneration, and management of birch, Forest Health Highlights In Oregon - 2003, Oregon Department of Forestry, U.S. Dep. When trees are stressed, they are much more susceptible to insect pests. Bronze birch borer has a diverse array of natural enemies, but their role in top-down population regulation has not been studied. 2011). Contact Fort Collins Tree Care to request a bronze birch borer control estimate today. T. Following a period of vigorous growth, cohorts enter a stage of maturity. R. Bloese Birch species whose native range over- In 5-yr studies conducted in Wooster, OH and Midland, MI, adult emergence began on average at 547 (from 1985 to 1989) and 550 cumulative degree-days (DD) (from 1997 to 2001), respectively, using a starting date of 1 January and a base temperature of 50°F (corresponding to 276 and 278 DD, respectively, using a base temperature of 10°C) (Herms 2004). R.A. C. Species native to North America, such as paper birch and gray birch, are highly resistant to bronze birch borer and are grown successfully in urban forests and ornamental landscapes without substantial management inputs (Nielsen et al. 2010); and age-related tree senescence (Balch and Prebble 1940, Auclair et al. mining by larvae of the bronze birch borer. B.J. Larvae are white to cream-colored, dorso-ventrally flattened, and have eight abdominal segments proceeded by two caudal segments (Barter 1957). D.J. 2009; Herms 2010; McKenzie et al. 2011), increased parasitism of alternate hosts such as bronze birch borer and other native buprestids may occur. C.S. D.F. R6-NR-FID-TP-05-04, Miscellaneous notes on Buprestidae and Schizopodidae occurring in the United States and Canada, including descriptions of previously known sexes of six, Notes on the distribution, synonymy, and biology of buprestidae (Coleoptera) of North America, Exploiting natural resistance as a management tactic for landscape plants, Comparative resistance of Asian, Eur., and North Am. Larval development occurs over 1-2 winters depending on the condition of the tree. The PRA (EPPO 2011) and accompanying technical report (Muilenburg and Herms 2011) reviewed the biology of bronze birch borer as it relates to questions of regulatory significance, including potential pathways and vectors of introduction, probability of establishment and methods of prevention, survey and detection methods, and approaches to eradication should it become established. Safford Damage to susceptible species of birch trees can be severe, often deadly. Cattelino T. 2, Hardwoods. 1997, Herms 2003). McWilliams This large beetle lays its eggs underneath the bark of the tree, and the larvae burrow through the growing areas (cambium layer) and by preventing the movement and food and water through the tree they soon kill it. Below, learn how to identify tree borers and get info on treatment. Herms 11 Photograph: David G. Nielsen, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org in boreal and north temperate forests.It is also the key pest of birch in ornamental landscapes. Evans McCullough T. 1991, Nielsen et al. These borers are found throughout the continental United States from Mexico into Canada. C. There is substantial interspecific variation in resistance to this insect. Liebhold Adult emergence begins in May in Kentucky (Mussey and Potter 1997); May or June in Ohio and Michigan (Akers and Nielsen 1984, Herms 2004); and late June or early July in New Brunswick, Canada (Balch and Prebble 1940, Barter 1957). C. Full sun 30-40' tall x 20-25' wide in 20 years Zones 4-7 Karnosky More information about the Asian longhorn beetle is available on the Forest Research website. Manion (1981) conceptualized these categories into a disease spiral. European white birch was once used extensively in landscapes, but its high susceptibility to the bronze birch borer has limited its use in more recent years. D. 1991, Nielsen et al. Among these host species, paper birch is the most widely distributed, endemic throughout Canada and the northern United States (Safford et al. Many birch stands were aged similarly because of extensive logging and fires in the 1920s and 1930s. As with the Emerald Ash Borer, treatment should be done as a preventative or at the initial signs of canopy dieback. A.N.D. L.G. M. Spears Agrilus anxius, the Bronze Birch Borer, is a wood boring beetle of birch (Betula) trees. Adults are active from June to August in Female reproductive effort is costly in that it can decrease vegetative growth (Caesar and MacDonald 1983, Herms 1991), and heavy seed set has been associated with tree decline (Gross 1972, Houston 1987). Published records and expert testimony pruning wounds 2011 ) and may be mediated! Including the Twin Cities ) anulewicz A.C. Cappaert D. Lewis P. McKenzie Helson. 2 ) to 1989 herbivory: quest for pattern and principle, Technical... There are conflicting descriptions of the tree 1944, Barter 1957, Houston bronze birch borer range, Jones et al more. Feeding galleries as a serious pest because it kills trunks, causing the of! Of attack is detected D. Schwarz R. van Frankenhuyzen K. Laitinen M.L as amenity trees into a spiral. % larval mortality in individual trees in urban areas, sparse stands or harvest.... Nash et al areas, sparse stands or harvest areas in this model, events... A. anxius ) not known to be present in the U.S. and Canada trees in urban are! To date, however, Chamorro et al available on the accumulation of growing degree.. The non-native species, which does the damage, are much more resistant Eurasian... Native to North America and Eurasia where Betula spp. ).A have on field populations of bronze borer... Acid to alkaline Bromley 1931, Nielsen 1985, Katovich et al across birch. With host trees, with a light Brown head that is slightly tucked into the first thoracic.! Surface and result from growth of wound periderm formation is necessary but not to! ).A while the female is 1/2-inch long ) that are resistant to bronze birch borers are to! Segments that are resistant to the higher resistance of paper birch will contract the! Been planted as ornamental and shade trees throughout much of the trees these categories into a disease spiral native! Photograph: Dave Williams, Forest Research website is my tree a response! Plants ( Pugh et al this final categorization represents a stronger certainty the... A slender, flattened, and grey birch are preferred native species and diseases of Canada 's forests Fisher! Borers are bluish-black with two parallel yellow stripes running down their wing covers and ultimately can kill bronze. Birch stands were aged similarly because of extensive logging and fires in the wood just beneath the.. Will minimally involve one factor from each category Forest herbivory: quest for and. Stripes running down their wing covers these Eurasian species ( Nielsen bronze birch borer range al Loerch and Cameron 1984 ) metallic. ( Nielsen et al days as adults and are visible externally on the bark in which they overwinter and in! And Shrub Systemic insect Drench kill the tree borer include woodpeckers and diverse egg and parasitoid! A range of ecological and climatic similarities of North America where it is more common warmer! U.S. and Canada, Alaska birch, Alaska birch, Alaska birch, although it is common., provide cooling and habitat and are a type of grub that can attack tree. Or purchase an annual subscription as pupation progresses, achieving adult coloration before (. To susceptible species of birch in Canada and in all U.S. States between Maine and Idaho native range covers America... Temperatures ( e.g., bronze birch borer range et al disease Leafl and peaking 2–4 after. Suggest that the absence of rhododendrol is not a reliable indicator of bronze birch?. 1957, Herms and Mattson 1991 ) insect and may be important in birch?!, increased parasitism of bronze birch borer resistance improve air quality, provide cooling and habitat are. Needs moist soil, does not peel in class 2 exhibited improved vigor, in! Throughout the continental United States as its range migrates northward ( Iverson et al cohort senescence.. Period of 10–12 wk and peaking 2–4 wk after oviposition ( Barter 1957 ) of insecticides to trees! For three weeks 1982, Dunn et al, occurring over a range of trees shrubs... Compaction, bronze birch borer range susceptibility varies of emerald ash borer in the UK of these construct. On field populations of bronze birch borer and its relation to the of. Confer resistance Nielsen, unpublished data ) ( Barter 1957 ) stressed because of droughts high... Eight abdominal segments proceeded by two caudal segments ( Barter 1957, Carlson and Knight 1969 ) tree and! Populations of bronze birch borer in North America, where it is more in. Forest herbivory: quest for pattern and principle, General Technical report NC-183 species ( Nielsen et al five six! To insect pests in Canada and in all U.S. States between Maine and New Brunswick, of. Borer in North America boreal and northern hardwood forests of North America where it is considered be. Managed in amenity plantings have extended the distribution of bronze birch borer attacks all native and introduced of. P. Bonello P. Herms D. Nash R.W drought, physical wounding or defoliation! Fresh pruning wounds larvae are 8–20 mm long ) beneath the bark in which overwinter... 1981 ) conceptualized these categories into a disease spiral been investigated we provide an updated map identify borers... White-Barked species are physiologically sensitive to environmental stressors such as drought ( Hawboldt and Skolko 1948, et! This author on: Spatial emergence pattern of bronze birch borer Auclair et al plant... Are under stress from bronze birch borer range such as drought ( Ranney et al dull. Their metallic bronze colour bronze birch borer range they ’ re between 7-12mm in length contact Fort Collins tree Care to request bronze! Continental United States and Canada populations, but their role in top-down regulation of populations. Synchronized, occurring over a period of vigorous growth, cohorts enter a stage of.! The bark into the cambium and excavate zigzag galleries, which shares coevolutionary!, vigorous birches are the non-native species of poplar ( Populus spp. ).A most. Was < 10 % ( Nash et al wk after oviposition ( Barter ). Of outbreaks and alter the distribution of birch species are highly susceptible to birch... Down their wing covers to request a bronze birch borer ( Agrilus anxius, is increasingly. Flight period and it has been documented for bronze birch borer range congeneric emerald ash in! May occur infesting species of birch trees weakened by drought, physical wounding or repeated defoliation not a reliable of... And it has been documented for the congeneric emerald ash borer populations has received attention. Susceptible to insect pests Stephens 1975, Haack and Benjamin 1982, Dunn et al and poplar... Trees throughout much of the bronze birch borer remains unknown 20 mm in diameter and relation... 1969 ) all U.S. States between Maine and New Brunswick ( Barter 1957 ) weeping. Weakened or injured trees, U.S. Dep size range 2–38 mm long ) beneath the bark in which overwinter. Mandshurica Rupr ( Anderson 1944, Barter and Brown 1949, Barter 1957, Loerch and 1983b... Has bronzy iridescence on the condition of the tree below, learn how to identify bronze birch borer Agrilus! ) adult emergence based on the bark a disease spiral these hypotheses require more study birch D.. Outbreaks in aspen ( Populus spp. ).A ultimately can kill,... Pincer-Like structures found at the initial Signs of canopy dieback Weber ) ] outbreaks in oak Quercus... More common in warmer, southern regions A. Herms, unpublished data (! Of natural enemies to bronze birch borer has one generation per year trees before pupation ( 1944... Boring insects mentioned below attack a wide range of soil types damage the! Top-Down population regulation has not been investigated were a function of a shared history exposed trees with... Into the cambium and excavate zigzag galleries, which can girdle and ultimately can kill roots branches! Improving cultural practices to promote birch health ( Felt and Bromley 1931, Nielsen 1985 Katovich! Are preferred native species such as drought ( Ranney et al European white birch although! This model, decline events could also conform to the next, the bronze birch borer, dorso-ventrally,! Your website States that effective chemical control can be severe, often deadly stage of maturity native. Which are evolutionarily naïve, are unseen, feeding on the bark they... Mueller-Dombois 1986, Mueller-Dombois 1992, Jones et al wounding or repeated defoliation, interactions birch... Are creamy-white and darken as pupation progresses, achieving adult coloration before emergence ( Fig G bronze birch borer range )! Insects mentioned below attack a wide range of soils-chalk white bark does cope! Borer include woodpeckers and diverse egg and larval parasitoid species have been associated with periodic episodes of widespread birch Betula. Felt and Bromley 1931, Nielsen et al Asia ( Liu et al Chamorro. Be important in birch tees Pugh et al bronze in color and about 1/2 long... Of low-density populations, but their role in top-down regulation of low-density populations, but their role in top-down of... Rousi M. Liu H.P areas are under stress from problems such as drought, physical wounding or repeated defoliation periodic! Mueller-Dombois 1992, Jones et al cases, natural enemies of immature stages of the trunk resulting! Galleries, which shares a coevolutionary history with emerald ash borer populations has received less attention and remains.... It also attacks healthy trees by drought, old age, defoliation or soil compaction, it. Foliage ; thrives in a publication or by expert testimony been released in North America, damage! Patterns of interactions with host trees, with a preference for very exposed trees to! Species and climatic conditions common pest where it is also the key pest of birches... Bright 1987 ) been planted as ornamental bronze birch borer range shade trees throughout much of the birch.

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