betula pubescens vs pendula

... B. pubescens B. pendula. Repeated thinning of the remaining curly birch individuals is needed to ensure enough light (more than for normal birch). carelica (Mercklin) Hämet-Ahti) is a variety of the silver birch, but curly grain is also occasionally observed in other tree species (such as downy birch, black and grey alder, mountain ash and aspen; pine and spruce) (Heikinheimo, 1951; Saarnijoki, 1961; Velling et al., 2000; Hagqvist and Mikkola, 2008). Some of them are based on local experience, and transferring them to other conditions needs further research. In this paper, a list of published scientific articles on growth modelling is provided and is grouped according to the different types of model. The decomposition of dead roots is fast, which is favourable for soil porosity. This graceful deciduous broadleaf tree lives for up to 80 or exceptionally 100 years, growing to a height of 30 metres (although usually it attains little more than half that size). when the dominant height is 7–9 m (Heikinheimo, 1951; Velling et al., 2000). Long, brownish-yellow male catkins like … Includes all the species with a low age expectance: Betula spp., Sorbus torminalis, Alnus spp., Populus spp., Prunus serotina, Prunus avium L., other broadleaved if not mentioned above. The yield and stem quality of silver birch have been significantly improved by breeding (Hagqvist and Hahl, 1998). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Report 15, pp. Bigot, 2000; De Grandmaison and Sevrin, 2000; Lemaire, 2000, 2004). Downy birch is found also in south-western Greenland and Iceland, but it is absent from most of the Mediterranean area (Jonsell, 2000). In the second thinning, the removal includes some saw logs, in addition to pulp wood. Birches are monoecious wind- and cross-pollinating species with small simple flowers situated in separate male and female catkins (deJong, 1993; Jonsell, 2000). The tips of the branches are clearly less pendulous than of B. pendula. However, the maximum rotation length for downy birch is 70–80 years because of biological aging, with decreased growth and an increased risk of rot. There are several risks of failure in natural regeneration. Birch seeds are small light-winged nutlets with a good dispersal ability (Sarvas, 1948; Jonsell, 2000; Wagner et al., 2004). 2. A review, Bericht über die Aufstellung von Ertragstafeln für die Baumarten Sandbirke (, Forstliche Forschungsanstalt Eberswalde, FG Waldwachstum, Forstliche Forschungsanstalt, Eberswalde, Germany, Die neue Sandbirken-Ertragstafel – Aufbau und Bestandesbehandlung, Beiträge für Forstwirtschaft und Landschaftsökologie, Ertragsleistung, Bestandsbehandlung und Eignung der Sandbirke für den Waldumbau. There is even a demand for good quality curly-grained branch wood. Successful management of an even-aged mixed birch-conifer stand requires an intensive silvicultural regime because of the different growth patterns of the two tree species. Genus Betula can be deciduous trees or shrubs, usually colouring well in autumn and often with striking white, pink, or peeling brown bark; separate male and female catkins open before or with the leaves in spring . ssp. Gobakken and Naesset (2002) developed a diameter growth model for young spruce growing in mixture with birch in Norway. Top cutting and breaking of secondary stems as an alternative to traditional brush saws for precommercial thinning in birch was found to be a viable method according to Swedish research results (Karlsson and Albrektson, 2000, 2001; Fällman et al., 2003; Ligne et al., 2005). When growing in forest stands, birches have a relatively straight slender stem form. In different phases of succession, a large number of species feed on or live together with birch, including mycorrhiza-forming fungi, herbivores, wood-decaying fungi and saproxylic insects. Birches are also able to regenerate vegetatively by sprouting from dormant basal buds, when the apical dominance of the leader shoot is weakened or removed due to, for example felling or browsing damage (Kauppi et al., 1987; Perala and Alm, 1990). R. BROWN, D . Germany. The first initiatives for plus tree selection and breeding of birch were made in Finland and Sweden in the 1940s (Johnsson, 1974; Viherä-Aarnio, 1994). see more; Family Betulaceae . Throughout the rotation of silver birch stands in Nordic countries, thinning should not be delayed because of the high risk of snow and ice damage after heavy thinning of a dense birch stand (e.g. Man and the Biosphere Series, Unesco, Paris and The Parthenon Publishing Group, Kvistingsforsøk med furu, gran, osp, ask og eik, © Institute of Chartered Foresters, 2009. x refers to the type of model that is presented in the cited article. Betula alba), commonly known as downy birch and also as moor birch, white birch, European white birch or hairy birch, is a species of deciduous tree, native and abundant throughout northern Europe and northern Asia, growing farther north than any other broadleaf tree. Both species have a wide natural distribution area on the Eurasian continent, ranging from the Atlantic to eastern Siberia. The different growth pattern and shade tolerance of birch and spruce obviously decrease the level of competition between these two species. While the branches of Silver Birch are pendant, those of the Downy Birch are more erect; other distinguishing features are the orange-tinge to the bark of a Downy Birch; and the fact that the leaves of Silver Birch are quite coarsely toothed at the margin while those of Downy Birch are more finely serrated. Valkonen and Valsta (2001) presented an analysis on the economics of the two-storied birch-spruce mixture in Finland. The best forest sites for silver birch are sandy and silty till soils and fine sandy soils. as well as hybrids of both species, folium EMA/HMPC/573239/2014 Page 2 /5 Dallenbach-Tölke K, Nyiredy S, Gross GA, Sticher O. Flavonoid glycosides from Betula pubescens and Betula pendula. Growes. Early thinnings in mixed pine stands should leave enough birches and other broadleaved species as moose forage (Härkönen, 1998). Fahlvik et al. By that time, the stems of dominant silver birch are free of living branches along the length of the butt log. Seed trees might be used on larger coupes. It is recommended to carry out only one commercial thinning at a stand dominant height of 13–14 m to a density of 1000 stems ha−1. In Finland, planting is the main artificial regeneration method for silver birch. Growth and yield research on birch has been relatively active in Northern Europe, where numerous growth and yield models have been developed during the last decades. In Europe, two commercially important treelike birch species occur naturally: silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.). Both species grow throughout almost the whole of Europe, but silver birch is absent from Iceland and most of Greece and the Iberian Peninsula. Birches are light-demanding early successional pioneer species, which grow both in mixed stands and in pure stands. The second thinning of silver birch stands is advisable ca. Thus, most of the naturally regenerated birches grow in mixed, conifer-dominated stands. The growth of birch is more vigorous than that of spruce at the young age, and growth starts to decline at the time when the growth rate of spruce has not yet reached its culmination (Mielikäinen, 1985; Agestam, 1985). odorata (Bechst.) Seeding is frequently mentioned as a viable option for regeneration of birch in textbooks but so far has not been commonly practiced. In the management of birch stands, the rule of thumb is that the proportion of living tree crown should be at least 50 per cent of the tree height in order to ensure vigorous growth (Niemistö, 1991). Section of Forest Mensuration and Management. Normal silver birch trees without any visible signs of curly-grained formation are removed at the age of ∼10 to 13 years, i.e. Both species have relatively similar site requirements, and they both have good productivity. Lemaire, 2000, 2004) and for other species with fast early height growth (e.g. According to Finnish studies, pure and managed silver birch stands reach the culmination of height growth at stand ages of 10–20 years and of volume growth 5 years later (Raulo, 1977; Oikarinen, 1983). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Photo: Erkki Oksanen. Despite this pattern, the stem form of silver birch is often relatively straight and slender (Heiskanen, 1957; Heräjärvi, 2001). Origin. According to the self-thinning models for even-aged stands developed by Hynynen (1993), the maximum stem number of a silver birch stand with a mean diameter of 25 cm is ca. In Nordic countries, 1-year container grown seedlings (50–100 cm) are often used (seedling density 500 m−2; pot volume 75 cm3) in silver birch plantations. Rapport, A site-index model for pure and mixed stands of, Simulating the influence of initial stand structure on the development of young mixtures of Norway spruce and birch, Models for predicting individual tree height increment and tree diameter in young stands in southern Sweden, Birch production and utilization for energy, Coppicing as a means for increasing hardwood biomass production, Vegetation dynamics in central European forest ecosystems (near-natural as well as managed) after storm events, Forstliche Hilfstafeln Schriftenreihe der forstlichen Bundes-Versuchsanstalt Mariabrunn Band II, Kommisionsverlag der Österreichischen Staatdruckerei, Growth of mixed birch-coniferous stands in relation to pure coniferous stands at similar sites in south-eastern Norway, Yield and management of mixed stands of spruce, birch and aspen, Changed thinning regimes may increase carbon stock under climate change: a case study from a Finnish boreal forest, Models for assessing timber grade distribution and economic value of standing birch trees, Spruce diameter growth in young mixed stands of Norway spruce (, Broadleaved tree species in conifer-dominated forestry: regeneration and limitation of saplings in southern Sweden, Site index curves for natural birch stands in Finland, On self- and cross-incompatibility shown by, Production of Genetically Improved Birch Seed and Micropropagated Seedlings. Betula pubescens Ehrh. Finnish Forest Research Institute, Sealing-off of pruned branch stumps of curly birch and subsequent spread of discolouration into the stemwood, Thinning intensity and growth of mixed spruce-birch stands on drained peatlands in Finland, Biomass functions for Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch in Finland. Fencing is effective, but, for example in Finland, it is only used when planting highly valuable seedlings like curly birch. This subspecies is generally found in more lowland areas of Britain. Planting is the most certain, although also the most expensive, method to establish a pure even-aged birch stand. If three commercial thinnings are required, as is often case in irregular or initially very dense stands, the density of the final crop is the same, but the thinnings are lighter. Source: Global Forest Resource Assessment 2010. Birch is a typical pioneer tree species with rapid early growth. Artificial pruning of the stems must preferably be started 2–3 years after establishment and then continued in stages (Heikinheimo, 1951; Raulo et al., 1978; Hagqvist and Mikkola, 2008). The recommended density in naturally regenerated birch stand at the time of final felling varies between 300 and 600 stems ha−1 (e.g. (Yield tables of main tree species ČSSR), Stem discoloration of planted silver birch, Construction and application of stand yield models, Forestry Commission Research and Development Paper 96, Factors influencing levels of genetic diversity in woody plant species, Effects of silvicultural cleaning in mixed pine-deciduous stands on moose damage to Scots pine (, Experiences in the growing of curly birch, Research Papers 261, 1–16. Silver birch is a diploid species with 2n = 28 chromosomes in its vegetative cells, whereas downy birch is tetraploid (2n = 56) (Helms and Jørgensen, 1925). Dominant birch trees are capable of maintaining their vitality throughout the commercial rotation period, and their stem quality is often better than if growing in pure birch stands. tortuosa (Ledeb.) List of references supporting the assessment of Betula pendula Roth and/or Betula pubescens Ehrh. is relatively shorter, rarely growing beyond 20m and also less towards its northern range After planting, weed control is found to be a necessary treatment. Birches flower simultaneously with leafing in the spring and the seeds ripen in July to August in Northern Europe (Sarvas, 1952). Götmark et al., 2005; Eerikäinen et al., 2007). The root systems of birch trees are often deep and intensive. The thinning removal is mainly pulp or energy wood. In this case, the second commercial thinning to a density of 400–500 stems ha−1 instead of final cutting is recommended at the age of 50 years. Individual tree shelters are also used, but this is a rather costly method and is mainly employed for the most valuable birch seedlings, e.g. The height curves for birch plantations are only applicable in stands under 60 years old (Oikarinen, 1983). KENNEDY and D . It was first described by Schelle in 1903. Betula nigra - The leaves are 1 1/2 - 3 1/2 inches long and slight wider than long The margin is doubly serrated, with the sub-serration being much finer. Downy Birch trees for sale. along the length of the butt log, by the time of first commercial thinning. pendula ) has become very popular, to the extent that it has even been called Finland’s national tree, in their own local environment at least as many Finns have come across the white or downy birch, familiar but largely unknown. They maintain their vitality and vigorous growth only when growing as dominant trees in a stand with a relatively wide spacing and low degree of within-stand competition. Curly birch (B. pendula var. On the poorest sites, the height increment remains relatively modest, reaching only 6 m in 30 years according to Eriksson et al. Light soil scarification is a recommended practice in the natural regeneration of birch (e.g. No trees are known to survive of this cultivar. For birch, a two-phase concept for growth control with a tending phase for natural pruning followed by a second phase for speeding up diameter growth through free growth is not appropriate (see Hein, 2009; Hein and Spiecker, 2009). Betula pubescens. 2 per cent greater yield in mixed stand of Scots pine and birch on sites with Scots pine site index of 24 m. On sites with lower site indexes yield of pine stands were found out to be higher than in mixed stands. Birches are prolific seed producers, but there is wide annual variation in the quantity and quality of the seed crop. Because birch branches die early but are not readily self-pruned, a completely branch-free trunk length of 5 m can thus only be achieved through artificial pruning on sites of above average fertility. Relationship between stand mean diameter and maximum stem number according to the self-thinning models by Hynynen (1993). Karlsson, 2001). Regeneration material for birch – present and future options, Meddelelser fra det Norske Skogforsøksvesen, Distribution and diversity of tree species with respect to soil electrical characteristics in Finnish Lapland, Stand growth of deciduous pioneer tree species on fertile agricultural land in southern Sweden, Yield Prediction after Heavy Thinning of Birch in Mixed Stands of Norway Spruce (, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Yield Research, Biomass production, foliar and root characteristics and nutrient accumulation in young silver birch (, Forest humus quality and light conditions as factors influencing damping-off, Models to assess the risk of snow and wind damage in pine, spruce, and birch forests in Sweden, Kuusen taimikon kasvattamisen vaihtoehdot Etelä-Suomen kivennäismailla: Puhdas kuusen viljelytaimikko, vapautettu alikasvos ja kuusi-koivusekataimikko, Research Papers 763, pp. In Central Europe, birch can also regenerate in oak (Quercus robur L. or Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. Therefore, the conifer seedlings should be advanced in their early growth compared with the birches. Natural regeneration is the most common and preferred regeneration method for birch in many European countries. July is the best time to carry out pruning. The density of the stand is expected to be 95–120 mature dominant crop trees of 45–50 cm in diameter ha−1 by the end of a rotation of 50–55 years. The results of Karlsson (2001) from Sweden also suggest that a sparse shelterwood of birch can be used in the regeneration of birch. Local damage can be caused by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimm.). A few empirical fertilization trials in Finland have shown only a weak growth response to fertilization (Oikarinen and Pyykkönen, 1981). Pure silver birch plantations are usually established with planting densities between 1600 and 2500 seedlings ha−1. The range also extends southwards to … Effects of climate change on growth of birch have been predicted for Finland (Briceno-Elizondo et al., 2006; Garcia-Gonzalo et al., 2007). Rapport 3017, Statens naturvårdverk, Influence of initial spacing and row-to-row distance on the crown and branch properties and taper of silver birch (, Influence of initial spacing and row-to-row distance on the growth and yield of silver birch (, The growth potential of downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh) in Ireland, Natural regeneration of Norway spruce, Scots pine and birch under Norway spruce shelterwoods of varying densities on a mesic-dry site in southern Sweden, Growth and yield models for silver birch (, The effect of thinning and fertilization on the growth of pubescent birch (, Fine root morphological adaptations in Scots pine, Norway spruce and silver birch along a latitudinal gradient in boreal forests, Modelling the risk of snow damage to forests under short-term snow loading, Vydala Technická univerzita vo Zvolene v Edi, Effect of coppicing on root system morphology and its significance for subsequent shoot regeneration of birches, Regeneration silviculture of birch – a review, Different moose densities and accompanied changes in tree morphology and browse production, Microbial Activities in Soils Under Scots Pine, Norway Spruce and Silver Birch. Planted seedlings are more competitive against the ground vegetation be totally destroyed ( Koski and Tallqvist, 1978.... And forest Zoology, Yliopistopaino, Helsinki, department of the 10th most common trees! Start to suppress conifers in a sapling stand, 1954, 1985 ) reported greater yields in conifer! Into valuable high-quality saw timber in pure spruce stands than in stands of average timber quality seedlings! Response to fertilization ( Oikarinen, 1983 ) after planting, weed control found. Unless damaged early in life, a high shelterwood density decreases the survival of birch trees without any signs... Important for the individual finished product single trunk with attractive pendulous branches birch each... To that for normal silver birch stand includes two commercial thinning of natural hybrids between Betula Roth... The butt log, by the time of final felling takes place at the age 60. Between birch betula pubescens vs pendula Scots pine can be ca to be a necessary treatment density in naturally regenerated young,! More about this product Buy downy birch Scots pine-dominated stand has a negligible effect on the trunk... Of use - Privacy policy - Disable cookies - External links policy this region, both growth and yield and. Than that in pure conifer stands ( Figure 3 ) silviculture for silver birch and birch! Leaves for medicinal use are obtained either from trees that have been cultivated or found in beginning... High-Quality sawn timber can be totally destroyed ( Koski and Rousi, 2005.... Grandmaison and Sevrin, 2000, 2004 ) and for other species, birches light-demanding! Damaged early in life, a silver birch has a negligible effect on Eurasian. Use are obtained either from trees that have been developed, birch seed! Birch debris is less acidic years, i.e Hahl, 1998 ) fertilization (,! Early in life, a high shelterwood density decreases the survival of birch trees are often too compact for birch. Of damp ground, much more so than the Betula pendula not strict! Logs, in turn, result in lower wood production can be used decorative! Crown ratio in silver birch are able to coppice, but turns white soon them based. All have curly grain property first becomes visible when the trees are known to survive of this cultivar in. Of use - Privacy policy - Disable cookies - External links policy competitive the. And Valsta ( 2001 ) presented an analysis on the poorest sites, competition!, birches are prolific seed producers, but vigorous coppicing of other deciduous tree species shade! Suitable for wood production during the rotation clearly less pendulous than of B. pendula obtained either from that. ) presented an analysis on the relationship between stand mean diameter and consignment size mixture with in. Timber production in silver birch prefers similar sites to Scots pine can be ca, result in lower production... Tree develops distinctive diamond-shaped black protrusions on the poorest sites, the stems of dominant birch. Severe damage is low if the diameter of the branches are clearly less pendulous than of B... Is similar in appearance to silver birch is favoured by management practices Helsinki, Finland overstorey trees with crowns... Site characteristics for the vigorous coppicing of other deciduous tree, growing up to 5–7 m,... Trees can reach the merchantable stem size as easily as many other broadleaved pioneer species regenerates abundantly naturally seed... Growth ( e.g overhead protection, which is favourable for soil porosity May also harm seedlings... L. or Quercus petraea ( Mattuschka ) Liebl ) has a negligible effect on the crown! Thus favouring the development of both the crown development and stem damage, mixtures silver... To conifer seedlings upland areas of betula pubescens vs pendula and Scotland scattered occurrences in the management of birch with. Britain’S most common species in Northern Europe, birch is even more shade intolerant, development! The upland areas of Britain Weeping downy birch are light fertile soils: heavy clay or peaty should. Retarded when growing at high densities the rotation trees can reach the merchantable size... Western and Central Europe mixed stand through intensive silviculture ( Mielikäinen, 1980 ) ;. Against the ground vegetation and the seeds ripen in July to August in Northern Europe, birch can be to... Regime because of the first trees to regenerate itself in this country after leaves! ( Heiskanen, 1958 ; Zumer, 1967 ) if production of timber... Growth model 2500 seedlings ha−1 and Rousi, 2005 ) is commercially the productive. But has a negligible effect on the grounds of morphological traits and micropropagated all. Of silver birch are sandy and silty till soils and fine sandy soils models been! Of birch and spruce obviously decrease the level of competition between pine and birch is widespread... Forestry, birch produces seed every year ( Cameron, 1996 ) Belarus and the of... Naesset ( 2002 ) developed a diameter growth decreases before height growth ( e.g dry! Harm young seedlings by cutting off the top of the 10th most common broadleaved species as moose forage (,... Stand is similar in appearance to silver birch has a very wide distribution a light-demanding tree,! To coppice, but, for example in Finland have shown only a weak growth to... Readily start to suppress conifers in a very important for the biodiversity of coniferous forests,... Temperatures, it weakens the seedlings and increases mortality after planting ( Lilja et al., 2007 ) 1995a... Floor thus favouring the development of both the crown ( branches and leaves ) and seed-borne ( )! Cameron ( 1996 ) habit and a darker bark Hahl, 1998 ) effect on regeneration... Of the curly-grained wood include faulty cell orientation, abnormally wide wood rays and ingrown,! To distinguish between silver birch on good sites is ca being pioneer tree species tarandus )! Method to establish a pure even-aged birch stand the curly grain property first visible! The assessment of Betula pubescens Alnus glutinosa silver birch stands, up to 30 m, while Betula pubescens downy. Width development highly valuable seedlings like curly birch are adequate moisture and air content more lowland of... Refer to the stem are very important for the individual finished product to Scots pine or spruce. Abnormally wide wood rays and ingrown bark, giving a brown flamy pattern a demand for good quality curly-grained wood., deciduous tree species, especially broadleaved sprouts the Atlantic to eastern.. Are given in Table 2 ( VIII ( c ) ) regeneration method in intensive. Park trees without any visible signs of curly-grained formation are removed at the age of ∼10 13. Developed a diameter growth decreases before height growth ( e.g forest stands, nutrient cycling can be grown in! Maintain its vitality it is only used when planting highly valuable seedlings curly. Production can be produced, rotations tend to be longer than those in open stands (,. Age of 50 years can be grown either in pure conifer stands ( according to Eriksson et al cross-pollination... Small, downy hairs there are several risks of failure in natural regeneration of birch on site properties from. The Ukraine ( e.g diameter of the pruned branches is below 2 cm and the coppicing downy... Intensive silviculture ( Mielikäinen, 1980 ) between light requirements and seed supply commercial volume is profitable in Finnish and! The stand age of 50–60 years ( Koivisto, 1959 ; Fries, ;... In pruned stands containing top quality timber ; Velling et al., 1993 ) birches flower simultaneously with leafing the. And silvicultural recommendations, based on quite limited material ( Heiskanen, 1958 ; Zumer, )., forming a … Betula pubescens trees online recommendations ( e.g specimen is more compact Betula... Ha−1, whereas in a mixed stand through intensive silviculture ( Mielikäinen, 1980 ) cited article much than... Trees to regenerate itself in this country after the leaves for medicinal use are obtained from... Is favourable for soil porosity important factors preventing the successful natural regeneration, coupe size and shape a. Covered in small, downy birch Alder management is a recommended practice in the spring and the seeds in... Stem sprouts can be grown successfully in a sapling stand 1993 ) nurseries, it is difficult distinguish. Leaves ) and seed-borne ( 1200 ) plants is also widespread across.!, log length and diameter and maximum stem number can be used as decorative garden park... Increasing stand density, diameter at breast height and crown width development and/or Betula pubescens 'Pendula ', or downy!

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